The purpose of the FLAURA study was to compare epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) in treating advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients with an EGFR mutation. More than 550 previously untreated patients were recruited for the Phase III trial, with one-half allocated to receive daily osimertinib—an EGFR-TKI that selectively targets mutations. The remaining participants were given a standard EGFR-TKI, either gefitinib or erlotinib. Investigators documented similar response rates for both cohorts; however, the effect lasted twice as long in the osimertinib patients. The primary outcome—progression-free survival—was greater in the osimertinib group, at a median 18.9 months compared with 10.2 months for those treated with standard EGFR-TKIs. In addition to demonstrating superior efficacy, osimertinib was associated with fewer serious adverse events.