4 months of rifampin or 9 months of isoniazid for latent TB in adults

New research indicates that a 4-month regimen of rifampin was not inferior to a 9-month isoniazid regimen for the prevention of active tuberculosis. In addition, the rifampin regimen was associated with an increased rate of treatment completion and improved safety.

New research indicates that a 4-month regimen of rifampin was not inferior to a 9-month isoniazid regimen for the prevention of active tuberculosis. In addition, the rifampin regimen was associated with an increased rate of treatment completion and improved safety. The open-label Phase III trial was conducted in nine countries and involved more than 6,800 participants. In the rifampin group, confirmed active TB developed in 4 individuals and clinically diagnosed active TB developed in 4 during 7,732 person–years of followup. In the isoniazid group, meanwhile, 4 patients developed confirmed active TB and 5 developed clinically diagnosed active TB during 7,652 person–years of followup. The rate differences were less than 0.01 cases per 100 person–years for confirmed active TB and less than 0.01 cases per 100 person–years for confirmed or clinically diagnosed TB. For grade 3-5 adverse events occurring within 146 days, the rate differences were -1.1 percentage points for all events and -1.2 percentage points for hepatotoxic events.