APhA Policy Manual

Policies Adopted by the 2017 APhA House of Delegates

Dispensing Authority
Patient Access to Pharmacist-Prescribed Medications
2017

1. APhA asserts that pharmacists' patient care services and related prescribing by pharmacists help improve patient access to care, patient outcomes, and community health, and they align with coordinated, team-based care.

2. APhA supports increased patient access to care through pharmacist prescriptive authority models.

3. APhA opposes requirements and restrictions that impede patient access to pharmacist-prescribed medications and related services.

4. APhA urges prescribing pharmacists to coordinate care with patients' other health care providers through appropriate documentation, communication, and referral.

5. APhA advocates that medications and services associated with prescribing by pharmacists must be covered and compensated in the same manner as for other prescribers.

6. APhA supports the right of patients to receive pharmacist-prescribed medications at the pharmacy of their choice.

Topic: Dispensing Authority

(JAPhA 57(4): 441 July/August 2017)

Drug Abuse, Control And Education
Drug Disposal Program Involvement
2017

APhA urges pharmacists to expand patient access to secure, convenient, and ecologically responsible drug disposal options, in accordance with the Secure and Responsible Drug Disposal Act of 2010, by implementing disposal programs they deem appropriate for their individual practice sites, patient care settings, and business models in an effort to reduce the amount of dispensed but unused prescription drug product available for diversion and misuse.

Topic: Drug Abuse, Control And Education

(JAPhA 57(4): 441 July/August 2017)

Drug Product Selection
Legislative Restrictions on Clinical Judgment
2017,
1982

APhA opposes the enactment of legislation which would act to restrict the clinical judgments of medical practitioners and other health professionals.

Topic: Drug Product Selection

(Am Pharm NS22(7):32 July 1982) (Reviewed 2004) (Reviewed 2006) (Reviewed 2007)(Reviewed 2012)(JAPhA 57(4): 441 July/August 2017)

Patient Access to Pharmacist-Prescribed Medications
2017

1. APhA asserts that pharmacists' patient care services and related prescribing by pharmacists help improve patient access to care, patient outcomes, and community health, and they align with coordinated, team-based care.

2. APhA supports increased patient access to care through pharmacist prescriptive authority models.

3. APhA opposes requirements and restrictions that impede patient access to pharmacist-prescribed medications and related services.

4. APhA urges prescribing pharmacists to coordinate care with patients' other health care providers through appropriate documentation, communication, and referral.

5. APhA advocates that medications and services associated with prescribing by pharmacists must be covered and compensated in the same manner as for other prescribers.

6. APhA supports the right of patients to receive pharmacist-prescribed medications at the pharmacy of their choice.

Topic: Drug Product Selection

(JAPhA 57(4): 441 July/August 2017)

Education, Curriculum And Competence For Pharmacists
Contemporary Pharmacy Practice
2017,
2012

1. APhA asserts that pharmacists should have the authority and support to practice to the full extent of their education, training, and experience in delivering patient care in all practice settings and activities.

2. APhA supports continuing efforts toward establishing a consistent and accurate perception of the contemporary role and practice of pharmacists by the general public, patients, and all persons and institutions engaged in health care policy, administration, payment, and delivery.

3. APhA supports continued collaboration with stakeholders to facilitate adoption of standardized practice acts, appropriate related laws, and regulations that reflect contemporary pharmacy practice.

4. APhA supports the establishment of multistate pharmacist licensure agreements to address the evolving needs of the pharmacy profession and pharmacist-provided patient care.

5. APhA urges the continued development of consensus documents, in collaboration with medical associations and other stakeholders, that recognize and support pharmacists' roles in patient care as health care providers.

6. APhA urges universal recognition of pharmacists as health care providers and compensation based on the level of patient care provided using standardized and future health care payment models.

Topic: Education, Curriculum And Competence For Pharmacists

(JAPhA NS52(4) 457 July/August 2012)(Reviewed 2016) (JAPhA 57(4): 441 July/August 2017)

Employer/employee Relations
Equal Rights and Opportunities for Pharmacy Personnel
2017,
2012,
1989

APhA reaffirms its unequivocal support of equal opportunities for employment and advancement, compensation, and organizational leadership positions. APhA opposes discrimination based on sex, gender identity or expression of race, color, religion, national origin, age, disability, genetic information, sexual orientation, or any other category protected by federal or state law.

Topic: Employer/employee Relations

(Am Pharm NS 29(7):464 July 1989) (Reviewed 2001) (Reviewed 2007)(JAPhA NS52(4) 459 July/August 2012)(JAPhA 57(4): 441 July/August 2017)

Environmental Concerns
Drug Disposal Program Involvement
2017

APhA urges pharmacists to expand patient access to secure, convenient, and ecologically responsible drug disposal options, in accordance with the Secure and Responsible Drug Disposal Act of 2010, by implementing disposal programs they deem appropriate for their individual practice sites, patient care settings, and business models in an effort to reduce the amount of dispensed but unused prescription drug product available for diversion and misuse.

Topic: Environmental Concerns

(JAPhA 57(4): 441 July/August 2017)

Interprofessional Relations
Contemporary Pharmacy Practice
2017,
2012

1. APhA asserts that pharmacists should have the authority and support to practice to the full extent of their education, training, and experience in delivering patient care in all practice settings and activities.

2. APhA supports continuing efforts toward establishing a consistent and accurate perception of the contemporary role and practice of pharmacists by the general public, patients, and all persons and institutions engaged in health care policy, administration, payment, and delivery.

3. APhA supports continued collaboration with stakeholders to facilitate adoption of standardized practice acts, appropriate related laws, and regulations that reflect contemporary pharmacy practice.

4. APhA supports the establishment of multistate pharmacist licensure agreements to address the evolving needs of the pharmacy profession and pharmacist-provided patient care.

5. APhA urges the continued development of consensus documents, in collaboration with medical associations and other stakeholders, that recognize and support pharmacists' roles in patient care as health care providers.

6. APhA urges universal recognition of pharmacists as health care providers and compensation based on the level of patient care provided using standardized and future health care payment models.

Topic: Interprofessional Relations

(JAPhA NS52(4) 457 July/August 2012)(Reviewed 2016) (JAPhA 57(4): 441 July/August 2017)

Labeling
Indication on Prescription Lables and Medication Safety
2017

APhA supports pharmacists' authority to include a medication's purpose on prescription labels, on the basis of professional knowledge, judgment, and patient preference, using vocabulary that is appropriate for their unique practice sites and that addresses the needs of their specific patient populations.

Topic: Labeling

(JAPhA 57(4): 442 July/August 2017)

Licensure, Registration, And Regulation
Pharmacy Technician Education, Training, and Development
2017

1. APhA supports the following minimum requirements for all new pharmacy technicians: (a) Successful completion of an accredited or state-approved education and training program (b) Certification by the Pharmacy Technician Certification Board (PTCB).

2. APhA supports state board of pharmacy regulations that require pharmacy technicians to meet minimum standards of education, training, certification, and recertification. APhA encourages state boards of pharmacy to develop a phase-in process for current pharmacy technicians. APhA also encourages boards of pharmacy to delineate between pharmacy technicians and student pharmacists for the purposes of education, training, certification, and recertification.

3. APhA recognizes the important contribution and role of pharmacy technicians in assisting pharmacists and student pharmacists with the delivery of patient care.

4. APhA supports the development of resources and programs that promote the recruitment and retention of qualified pharmacy technicians.

5. APhA supports the development of continuing pharmacy education programs that enhance and support the continued professional development of pharmacy technicians.

6. APhA encourages the development of compensation models for pharmacy technicians that promote sustainable career opportunities

Topic: Licensure, Registration, And Regulation

(JAPhA 57(4): 442 July/August 2017)

Contemporary Pharmacy Practice
2017,
2012

1. APhA asserts that pharmacists should have the authority and support to practice to the full extent of their education, training, and experience in delivering patient care in all practice settings and activities.

2. APhA supports continuing efforts toward establishing a consistent and accurate perception of the contemporary role and practice of pharmacists by the general public, patients, and all persons and institutions engaged in health care policy, administration, payment, and delivery.

3. APhA supports continued collaboration with stakeholders to facilitate adoption of standardized practice acts, appropriate related laws, and regulations that reflect contemporary pharmacy practice.

4. APhA supports the establishment of multistate pharmacist licensure agreements to address the evolving needs of the pharmacy profession and pharmacist-provided patient care.

5. APhA urges the continued development of consensus documents, in collaboration with medical associations and other stakeholders, that recognize and support pharmacists' roles in patient care as health care providers.

6. APhA urges universal recognition of pharmacists as health care providers and compensation based on the level of patient care provided using standardized and future health care payment models.

Topic: Licensure, Registration, And Regulation

(JAPhA NS52(4) 457 July/August 2012)(Reviewed 2016) (JAPhA 57(4): 441 July/August 2017)

Medical And Pharmaceutical Equipment And Products
Support for Clinically-Validated Blood Pressure Measurement Devices
2017

1. APhA supports the use of manual and automated blood pressure measurement devices that are clinically validated initially and then undergo routine calibration to ensure accurate results.

2. APhA supports regulations and peer-reviewed clinical validation testing for automated blood pressure measurement devices.

3. APhA promotes public awareness of accuracy of automated blood pressure measurement devices.

Topic: Medical And Pharmaceutical Equipment And Products

(JAPhA 57(4): 442 July/August 2017)

Minorities In Pharmacy
Equal Rights and Opportunities for Pharmacy Personnel
2017,
2012,
1989

APhA reaffirms its unequivocal support of equal opportunities for employment and advancement, compensation, and organizational leadership positions. APhA opposes discrimination based on sex, gender identity or expression of race, color, religion, national origin, age, disability, genetic information, sexual orientation, or any other category protected by federal or state law.

Topic: Minorities In Pharmacy

(Am Pharm NS 29(7):464 July 1989) (Reviewed 2001) (Reviewed 2007)(JAPhA NS52(4) 459 July/August 2012)(JAPhA 57(4): 441 July/August 2017)

Pharmacy Practice
Pharmacists' Role Within Value-based Payment Models
2017

1. APhA supports value-based payment models that include pharmacists as essential health care team members and that promote coordinated care, improved health outcomes, and lower total costs of health care.

2. APhA encourages the development and implementation of meaningful, consistent process-based and outcomes-based quality measures that allow attribution of pharmacist impact within value-based payment models.

3. APhA advocates for mechanisms that recognize and compensate pharmacists for their contributions toward meeting goals of quality and total costs of care in value-based payment models, separate and distinct from the full product and dispensing cost reimbursement.

4. APhA advocates that pharmacists must have real-time access to and exchange of electronic health record data within value-based payment models in order to achieve optimal health and medication-related outcomes.

5. APhA supports education, training, and resources that help pharmacists transform and integrate their practices with value-based payment models and programs.

Topic: Pharmacy Practice

(JAPhA 57(4): 441 July/August 2017)

Pharmacy Performance Networks
2017

1. APhA supports performance networks that improve patient care and health outcomes, reduce costs, use pharmacists as an integral part of the health care team, and include evidence-based quality measures.

2. APhA urges collaboration between pharmacists and payers to develop distinct, transparent, fair, and equitable payment strategies for achieving performance measures associated with providing pharmacists' patient care services that are separate from the reimbursement methods used for product fulfillment.

3. APhA advocates for prospective notification of evidence-based quality measures that will be used by a performance network to assess provider and practice performance. Furthermore, updates on provider and practice performance against these measures should be provided in a timely and regular manner.

4. APhA supports pharmacists' professional autonomy to determine processes that improve performance on evidence-based quality measures.

Topic: Pharmacy Practice

(JAPhA 57(4): 441 July/August 2017)

Patient Access to Pharmacist-Prescribed Medications
2017

1. APhA asserts that pharmacists' patient care services and related prescribing by pharmacists help improve patient access to care, patient outcomes, and community health, and they align with coordinated, team-based care.

2. APhA supports increased patient access to care through pharmacist prescriptive authority models.

3. APhA opposes requirements and restrictions that impede patient access to pharmacist-prescribed medications and related services.

4. APhA urges prescribing pharmacists to coordinate care with patients' other health care providers through appropriate documentation, communication, and referral.

5. APhA advocates that medications and services associated with prescribing by pharmacists must be covered and compensated in the same manner as for other prescribers.

6. APhA supports the right of patients to receive pharmacist-prescribed medications at the pharmacy of their choice.

Topic: Pharmacy Practice

(JAPhA 57(4): 441 July/August 2017)

Pharmacy Technicians
Pharmacy Technician Education, Training, and Development
2017

1. APhA supports the following minimum requirements for all new pharmacy technicians: (a) Successful completion of an accredited or state-approved education and training program (b) Certification by the Pharmacy Technician Certification Board (PTCB).

2. APhA supports state board of pharmacy regulations that require pharmacy technicians to meet minimum standards of education, training, certification, and recertification. APhA encourages state boards of pharmacy to develop a phase-in process for current pharmacy technicians. APhA also encourages boards of pharmacy to delineate between pharmacy technicians and student pharmacists for the purposes of education, training, certification, and recertification.

3. APhA recognizes the important contribution and role of pharmacy technicians in assisting pharmacists and student pharmacists with the delivery of patient care.

4. APhA supports the development of resources and programs that promote the recruitment and retention of qualified pharmacy technicians.

5. APhA supports the development of continuing pharmacy education programs that enhance and support the continued professional development of pharmacy technicians.

6. APhA encourages the development of compensation models for pharmacy technicians that promote sustainable career opportunities

Topic: Pharmacy Technicians

(JAPhA 57(4): 442 July/August 2017)

Prescribing Authority
Contemporary Pharmacy Practice
2017,
2012

1. APhA asserts that pharmacists should have the authority and support to practice to the full extent of their education, training, and experience in delivering patient care in all practice settings and activities.

2. APhA supports continuing efforts toward establishing a consistent and accurate perception of the contemporary role and practice of pharmacists by the general public, patients, and all persons and institutions engaged in health care policy, administration, payment, and delivery.

3. APhA supports continued collaboration with stakeholders to facilitate adoption of standardized practice acts, appropriate related laws, and regulations that reflect contemporary pharmacy practice.

4. APhA supports the establishment of multistate pharmacist licensure agreements to address the evolving needs of the pharmacy profession and pharmacist-provided patient care.

5. APhA urges the continued development of consensus documents, in collaboration with medical associations and other stakeholders, that recognize and support pharmacists' roles in patient care as health care providers.

6. APhA urges universal recognition of pharmacists as health care providers and compensation based on the level of patient care provided using standardized and future health care payment models.

Topic: Prescribing Authority

(JAPhA NS52(4) 457 July/August 2012)(Reviewed 2016) (JAPhA 57(4): 441 July/August 2017)

Patient Access to Pharmacist-Prescribed Medications
2017

1. APhA asserts that pharmacists' patient care services and related prescribing by pharmacists help improve patient access to care, patient outcomes, and community health, and they align with coordinated, team-based care.

2. APhA supports increased patient access to care through pharmacist prescriptive authority models.

3. APhA opposes requirements and restrictions that impede patient access to pharmacist-prescribed medications and related services.

4. APhA urges prescribing pharmacists to coordinate care with patients' other health care providers through appropriate documentation, communication, and referral.

5. APhA advocates that medications and services associated with prescribing by pharmacists must be covered and compensated in the same manner as for other prescribers.

6. APhA supports the right of patients to receive pharmacist-prescribed medications at the pharmacy of their choice.

Topic: Prescribing Authority

(JAPhA 57(4): 441 July/August 2017)

Prescriptions And Prescription Orders
Indication on Prescription Labels and Medication Safety
2017

APhA supports pharmacists' authority to include a medication's purpose on prescription labels, on the basis of professional knowledge, judgment, and patient preference, using vocabulary that is appropriate for their unique practice sites and that addresses the needs of their specific patient populations.

APhA supports standardizing patient records and clinical decision support tools (including pharmacy dispensing systems) to collect, document, and utilize information regarding the patient's tobacco and nicotine use.

Topic: Prescriptions And Prescription Orders

(JAPhA 57(4): 442 July/August 2017)

Public Health
Drug Disposal Program Involvement
2017

APhA urges pharmacists to expand patient access to secure, convenient, and ecologically responsible drug disposal options, in accordance with the Secure and Responsible Drug Disposal Act of 2010, by implementing disposal programs they deem appropriate for their individual practice sites, patient care settings, and business models in an effort to reduce the amount of dispensed but unused prescription drug product available for diversion and misuse.

Topic: Public Health

(JAPhA 57(4): 441 July/August 2017)

Support for Clinically-Validated Blood Pressure Measurement Devices
2017

1. APhA supports the use of manual and automated blood pressure measurement devices that are clinically validated initially and then undergo routine calibration to ensure accurate results.

2. APhA supports regulations and peer-reviewed clinical validation testing for automated blood pressure measurement devices.

3. APhA promotes public awareness of accuracy of automated blood pressure measurement devices.

Topic: Public Health

(JAPhA 57(4): 442 July/August 2017)

Reimbursement And Compensation
Contemporary Pharmacy Practice
2017,
2012

1. APhA asserts that pharmacists should have the authority and support to practice to the full extent of their education, training, and experience in delivering patient care in all practice settings and activities.

2. APhA supports continuing efforts toward establishing a consistent and accurate perception of the contemporary role and practice of pharmacists by the general public, patients, and all persons and institutions engaged in health care policy, administration, payment, and delivery.

3. APhA supports continued collaboration with stakeholders to facilitate adoption of standardized practice acts, appropriate related laws, and regulations that reflect contemporary pharmacy practice.

4. APhA supports the establishment of multistate pharmacist licensure agreements to address the evolving needs of the pharmacy profession and pharmacist-provided patient care.

5. APhA urges the continued development of consensus documents, in collaboration with medical associations and other stakeholders, that recognize and support pharmacists' roles in patient care as health care providers.

6. APhA urges universal recognition of pharmacists as health care providers and compensation based on the level of patient care provided using standardized and future health care payment models.

Topic: Reimbursement And Compensation

(JAPhA NS52(4) 457 July/August 2012)(Reviewed 2016) (JAPhA 57(4): 441 July/August 2017)

Pharmacists' Role Within Value-based Payment Models
2017

1. APhA supports value-based payment models that include pharmacists as essential health care team members and that promote coordinated care, improved health outcomes, and lower total costs of health care.

2. APhA encourages the development and implementation of meaningful, consistent process-based and outcomes-based quality measures that allow attribution of pharmacist impact within value-based payment models.

3. APhA advocates for mechanisms that recognize and compensate pharmacists for their contributions toward meeting goals of quality and total costs of care in value-based payment models, separate and distinct from the full product and dispensing cost reimbursement.

4. APhA advocates that pharmacists must have real-time access to and exchange of electronic health record data within value-based payment models in order to achieve optimal health and medication-related outcomes.

5. APhA supports education, training, and resources that help pharmacists transform and integrate their practices with value-based payment models and programs.

Topic: Reimbursement And Compensation

(JAPhA 57(4): 441 July/August 2017)

Pharmacy Performance Networks
2017

1. APhA supports performance networks that improve patient care and health outcomes, reduce costs, use pharmacists as an integral part of the health care team, and include evidence-based quality measures.

2. APhA urges collaboration between pharmacists and payers to develop distinct, transparent, fair, and equitable payment strategies for achieving performance measures associated with providing pharmacists' patient care services that are separate from the reimbursement methods used for product fulfillment.

3. APhA advocates for prospective notification of evidence-based quality measures that will be used by a performance network to assess provider and practice performance. Furthermore, updates on provider and practice performance against these measures should be provided in a timely and regular manner.

4. APhA supports pharmacists' professional autonomy to determine processes that improve performance on evidence-based quality measures.

Topic: Reimbursement And Compensation

(JAPhA 57(4): 441 July/August 2017)

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Advertising
Advertising for Pharmacies
Use of the Word "Pharmacy" in Unlicensed Environments
2016,
1997

APhA supports the establishment and enforcement of regulations through Boards of Pharmacy that restrict the use of the words "pharmacy", "drug store", "apothecary" or any other words or symbols of similar meaning or signage and business names to entities in which the practice of pharmacy is conducted.

(JAPhA NS37:460 July/August 1997) (Reviewed 2002) (Reviewed 2006)(Reviewed 2011)(JAPhA 56(4); 380 July/August 2016)

Transfer Incentives
2010

APhA advocates the elimination of coupons, rebates, discounts, and other incentives provided to patients that promote the transfer of prescriptions between competitors.

(JAPhA NS40(4):471 July/August 2010)(Reviewed 2015)

Directory Listings for Pharmacies
2007,
2002,
1968

APhA encourages the listing of all pharmacies in telephone, Internet and other directories under "Pharmacies."

(JAPhA NS8:380 July 1968) (JAPhA NS42(5 Suppl 1:S62 September/October 2002)(Reviewed 2006) (JAPhA NS45(5):580 September-October 2007)(Reviewed 2012)(Reviewed 2017)

Depiction of Pharmacists in Public Media
2002,
1984

APhA supports the development of guidelines or standards to enhance the depiction of the pharmacy profession in all public media.

(Am Pharm NS24(7):60 July 1984) (JAPhA NS42(5: Suppl. 1:S62 September/October 2002) (Reviewed 2006)(Reviewed 2011) (Reviewed 2016)

Investigation of Discount Card Issuer Practices
2002

APhA encourages the Federal Trade Commission, the US attorney general or other appropriate agency to investigate misleading and deceptive marketing practices of issuers of discount cards.

(JAPhA NS42(5):Suppl. 1:S61 September/October 2002) (Reviewed 2006)(Reviewed 2011)(Reviewed 2016)

Use of the Phrase "Community Pharmacy"
2000

APhA supports use of the phrase "community pharmacy" rather than "retail pharmacy."

(JAPhA NS40(5):Suppl. 1:S8 September/October 2000) (Reviewed 2002) (Reviewed 2007)(Reviewed 2012)(Reviewed 2017)

Drug Names
Brand-Name Line Extensions
1996

APhA opposes the use of the same brand name (or minor modifications of the same name) for prescription and non-prescription drug products containing different active ingredients.

(JAPhA NS36(6):396 June 1996) (Reviewed 2004) (Reviewed 2006)(Review 2011)(Reviewed 2016)

Prescription & Non-Prescription Drugs
Prescription Drug Advertising
2004,
1977

APhA does not oppose the dissemination of price information to patients, by advertising or by any other means.

(JAPhA NS17:448 July 1977)(JAPhA NS44(5):551 September/October 2004)(Reviewed 2006)(Reviewed 2011)(Reviewed 2016)

Direct-to-Consumer Advertising of Medications
1999

1. APhA supports legislative and regulatory activities permitting direct-to-consumer advertising concerning medical or health conditions treatable by prescription or nonprescription drug products. These advertisements must conform to rules and regulations that assure complete, comprehensive, and understandable information that informs consumers of potential benefits and risks of the product.

2. APhA opposes false or misleading advertising for prescription or nonprescription drugs or any promotional efforts that encourage indiscriminate use of medication.

3. APhA supports the availability of accurate information to consumers about medication use, and recognizes the responsibility of pharmacists to provide appropriate responses to consumer inquiries stimulated by direct-to-consumer advertising as a compensated pharmaceutical service. In addition, APhA recommends that health care professionals, including but not limited to pharmacists, receive new product information on direct-to-consumer advertising campaigns prior to this information being made available to consumers.

(JAPhA 39(4): 447 July/August 1999)(Reviewed 2004) (Reviewed 2006)(Reviewed 2011) (Reviewed 2016)

Automation And Technology In Pharmacy Practice
Integrated Nationwide Prescription Drug Monitoring Program
2015

1. APhA supports nationwide integration of prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMP) that incorporate federal, state, and territory databases for the purpose of providing health care professionals with accurate and real-time information to assist in clinical decision making when providing patient care services related to controlled substances.

2. APhA supports pharmacist involvement in the development of uniform standards for an integrated nationwide prescription drug monitoring program (PDMP) that includes the definition of authorized registered users, documentation, reporting requirements, system response time, security of information, minimum reporting data sets, and standard transaction format.

3. APhA supports mandatory prescription drug monitoring program (PDMP) enrollment by all health care providers, mandatory reporting by all those who dispense controlled substances, and appropriate system query by registrants during the patient care process related to controlled substances.

4. APhA advocates for the development of seamless workflow integration systems that would enable consistent use of a nationwide prescription drug monitoring program (PDMP) by registrants to facilitate prospective drug review as part of the patient care process related to controlled substances.

5. APhA advocates for continuous, sustainable federal funding sources for practitioners and system operators to utilize and maintain a standardized integrated and real-time nationwide prescription drug monitoring program (PDMP).

6. APhA supports the use of interprofessional advisory boards, that include pharmacists, to coordinate collaborative efforts for (a) compiling, analyzing, and using prescription drug monitoring program (PDMP) data trends related to controlled substance misuse, abuse, and/or fraud; (b) providing focused provider education and patient referral to treatment programs; and (c) supporting research activities on the impact of PDMPs.

7. APhA supports education and training for registrants about a nationwide prescription drug monitoring program (PDMP) to ensure proper data integrity, use, and confidentiality.

(JAPhA N55(4): 364 July/August 2015)

Interoperability of Communications Among Health Care Providers to Improve Quality of Patient Care
2015

1. APhA supports the establishment of secure, portable, and interoperable electronic patient health care records.

2. APhA supports the engagement of pharmacists with other stakeholders in the development and implementation of multidirectional electronic communication systems to improve patient safety, enhance quality care, facilitate care transitions, increase efficiency, and reduce waste.

3. APhA advocates for the inclusion of pharmacists in the establishment and enhancement of electronic health care information technologies and systems that must be interoperable, HIPAA compliant, integrated with claims processing, updated in a timely fashion, allow for data analysis, and do not place disproportionate financial burden on any one health care provider or stakeholder.

4. APhA advocates for pharmacists and other health care providers to have access to view, download and transmit electronic health records. Information shared among providers using a health information exchange should utilize a standardized secure interface based on recognized international health record standards for the transmission of health information.

5. APhA supports the integration of federal, state, and territory health information exchanges into an accessible, standardized, nationwide system.

6. APhA opposes business practices and policies that obstruct the electronic access and exchange of patient health information because these practices compromise patient safety and the provision of optimal patient care.

7. APhA advocates for the development of systems that facilitate and support electronic communication between pharmacists and prescribers concerning patient adherence, medication discontinuation, and other clinical factors that support quality care transitions.

8. APhA supports the development of education and training programs for pharmacists, student pharmacists, and other health care professionals on the appropriate use of electronic health records to reduce errors and improve the quality and safety of patient care.

9. APhA supports the creation and non-punitive application of a standardized, interoperable system for voluntary reporting of errors associated with the use of electronic health care information technologies and systems to enable aggregation of protected data and develop recommendations for improved quality.

(JAPhA N55(4): 364 July/August 2015)

E-prescribing Standardization
2010

1. APhA supports the standardization of user interfaces to improve quality and reduce errors unique to e-prescribing.

2. APhA supports reporting mechanisms and research efforts to evaluate the effectiveness, safety, and quality of e-prescribing systems, computerized prescriber order entry (CPOE) systems, and the e-prescriptions that they produce, in order to improve health information technology systems and, ultimately, patient care.

3. APhA supports the development of financial incentives for pharmacists and prescribers to provide high quality e-prescribing activities.

4. APhA supports the inclusion of pharmacists in quality improvement and meaningful use activities related to the use of e-prescribing and other health information technology that would positively impact patient health outcomes.

(JAPhA NS40(4):471 July/August 2010)(Reviewed 2012)(Reviewed 20..14) (Reviewed 2015)

Personal Health Records
2010

1. APhA supports patient utilization of personal health records, defined as records of health-related information managed, shared, and controlled by the individual, to facilitate self-management and communication across the continuum of care.

2. APhA urges both public and private entities to identify and include pharmacists and other stakeholders in the development of personal health record systems and the adoption of standards, including but not limited to terminology, security, documentation, and coding of data contained within personal health records.

3. APhA supports the development, implementation, and maintenance of personal health record systems that are accessible and searchable by pharmacists and other health care providers, interoperable and portable across health information systems, customizable to the needs of the patient, and able to differentiate information provided by a health care provider and the patient.

4. APhA supports pharmacists taking the leadership role in educating the public about the importance of maintaining current and accurate medication-related information within personal health records.

(JAPhA NS40(4):471 July/August 2010)(Reviewed 2013)(Reviewed 2014) (Reviewed 2015)

Automation and Technology in Pharmacy Practice
2004

1. APhA supports the use of automation and technology in pharmacy practice, with pharmacists maintaining oversight of these systems..

2. APhA recommends that pharmacists and other pharmacy personnel implement policies and procedures addressing the use of technology and automation to ensure safety, accuracy, security, data integrity, and patient confidentiality.

3. APhA supports initial and ongoing system-specific education and training of all affected personnel when automation and technology are utilized in the workplace.

4. APhA shall work with all relevant parties to facilitate the appropriate use of automation and technology in pharmacy practice.

(JAPhA NS44(5):551 September/October 2004)(Reviewed 2006)(Reviewed 2008)(Reviewed 2013)(Reviewed 2014) (Reviewed 2015)

Automation and Technical Assistance
2001

APhA supports the use of automation for prescription preparation and supports technical and personnel assistance for performing administrative duties and facilitating pharmacists' provision of pharmaceutical care.

(JAPhA NS41(5): Suppl 1:58 September/October 2001) (Reviewed 2004) (Reviewed 2007)(Reviewed 2008)(Reviewed 2013) (Reviewed 2015)

Biotechnology
Biologic, Biosimilar, and Interchangeable Biologic Drug Products
2016

1. APhA urges the development of programs and policies that facilitate patient access to and affordability of biologic products.

2. APhA urges the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to expedite the development of standards and pathways that will evaluate the interchangeability of biologic products.

3. APhA recognizes the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Purple Book as an authoritative reference about biologic product interchangeability within the United States.

4. APhA opposes interchangeable biologic product substitution processes that require authorization, recordkeeping, or reporting beyond generic product substitution processes.

5. APhA encourages scientific justification for extrapolation of indications for biologic products to ensure patient safety and optimal therapeutic outcomes.

(JAPhA 56(4); 369 July/August 2016)

Pharmacogenomics/Personalized Medicine
2010

1. APhA supports evidence-based personalized medicine, defined as the use of a person's clinical, genetic, genomic, and environmental information to select a medication or its dose, to choose a therapy, or to recommend preventive measures, as a means to improve patient safety and optimize health outcomes.

2. APhA promotes pharmacists as health care providers in the collection, use, interpretation, and application of pharmacogenomic data to optimize health outcomes.

3. APhA supports the development and implementation of programs, tools, and clinical guidelines that facilitate the translation and application of pharmacogenomic data into clinical practice.

4. APhA supports the inclusion of pharmacogenomic analysis in the drug development/approval and postmarketing surveillance processes.

(JAPhA NS50(4):471 July/August 2010) (Reviewed 2015)

Pharmaceutical Biotechnology Products
2005,
1988

APhA recognizes the urgent need for education and training of pharmacists and student pharmacists relative to the therapeutic and diagnostic use of pharmaceutical biotechnology products. APhA, therefore, supports the continuing development and implementation of such education and training.

(Am Pharm NS28(6):394 June 1988) (JAPhA NS45(5):559 September/October 2005)(Reviewed 2006) (Reviewed 2007) (Reviewed 2010)(Reviewed 2015)(Reviewed 2016)(Reviewed 2017)

Pharmacogenomics
2005,
2000

1. Recognizing the benefits and risks of pharmacogenomics and applications of this technology, APhA supports further research and assessment of the clinical, economic, and humanistic impact of pharmacogenomics on the health care system. This includes collaboration with other health care and consumer organizations for information sharing and development of pharmaceutical care processes involving these therapies. Pharmacogenomics is defined as the application of genomic technology in drug development and therapy.

2. APhA supports ongoing vigilance by all individuals and organizations with access to genetic information to maintain the confidentiality of the information.

3. APhA supports the development of educational materials to train and educate pharmacists, student pharmacists, pharmacy technicians, and consumers regarding pharmacogenomics.

(JAPhA NS40(5):Suppl.1:S8 September/October 2000) (JAPhA NS45(5):555 September/October 2005) (Reviewed 2009) (Reviewed 2010) (Reviewed 2015)

Biotechnology
1991

APhA encourages the development of appropriate educational materials and guidelines to assist pharmacists in addressing the ethical issues associated with the appropriate use of biotechnology-based products.

(Am Pharm NS31(6):29 June 1991) (Reviewed 2004) (Reviewed 2007) (Reviewed 2010) (Reviewed 2015)(Reviewed 2016)(Reviewed 2017)

Biologic Drug Products
2012,
2007

1. APhA encourages the development of safe, effective, and affordable therapeutically equivalent generic/biosimilar versions of biologic drug products, including clinical trails that assess safety.

2. APhA encourages the FDA to develop a scientifically based process to approved therapeutically equivalent generic/biosimilar versions of biologic drug products.

3. APhA should actively support legislation to hasten the development of an efficient regulatory process to approve therapeutically equivalent generic versions of biologic drug products.

APhA should initiate educational programs for pharmacists and other health care professionals concerning the determination of therapeutic equivalence of generic/biosimilar versions of biologic drug products

(JAPhA NS40(5):Suppl. 1:S8 September/October 2000) (Reviewed 2002) (Reviewed 2007)(Reviewed 2012)(Reviewed 2016)(Reviewed 2017)

Disaster Preparedness
Role of the Pharmacist in National Defense
2016,
2011,
2002,
1963

APhA endorses the position that the pharmacist, as a member of the health care team, has the ethical responsibility to assume a role in disaster preparedness and emergency care operations. These responsibilities include:

1. Pharmacists, by their education and training as medication experts, should be involved intimately in all elements of the procurement, storage, handling, compounding, and dispensing of drugs and supplies in planning for as well as during any national emergency.

2. Pharmacists, by their education in anatomy, physiology, and pharmacology, are readily adaptable to assist in the emergency medical treatment of patients and for training the public in medical self-help.

3. Pharmacists, by their constant contact with the members of the health team, as well as a significant portion of their communities, provide the potential for coordinating preparedness measures, and establishing meaningful standby emergency operational plans.

In view of these responsibilities, it shall be the further policy of APhA

1. To cooperate with all responsible agencies and departments of the federal government.

2. To provide leadership and guidance for the profession of pharmacy by properly assuming its role with other health profession organizations at the national level (e.g., American Medical Association, American Hospital Association, American Dental Association, American Nurses Association, and American Veterinary Medical Association).

3. To assist and cooperate with all national specialty pharmaceutical organizations to provide assistance and coordination in civil defense matters relevant to their area of concern.

4. To encourage and assist the state and local pharmacy associations in their efforts to cooperate with the state and local governments as well as the state and local health profession organizations in order that the pharmacist may assume his proper place in civil defense operations.

5. To provide leadership and guidance so that individual pharmacists can contribute their services to civil defense and disaster planning, training, and operations in a manner consistent with their position as a member of the health team.

(JAPhA NS3:330 June 1963) (JAPhA NS42(5): Suppl. 1:S62 September/October 2002) (Reviewed 2006)(Reviewed 2010) (JAPhA NS51(4) 483;July/August 2011)(JAPhA 56(4); 379 July/August 2016)

Disaster Preparedness
2015

APhA encourages pharmacist involvement in surveillance, mitigation, preparedness, planning, response, and recovery related to terrorism and infectious diseases.

(JAPhA N55(4); 365 July/August 2015)

Use of Social Media
2014

1. APhA encourages the use of social media in ways that advance patient care and uphold pharmacists as trusted and accessible health care providers.

2. APhA supports the use of social media as a mechanism for the delivery of patient-specific care in a platform that allows for appropriate patient and provider protections and access to necessary health care information.

3. APhA supports the inclusion of social media education, including but not limited to appropriate use and professionalism, as a component of pharmacy education and continuing professional development.

4. APhA affirms that the patient's right to privacy and confidentiality shall not be compromised through the use of social media.

5. APhA urges pharmacists and student pharmacists to self-monitor their social media presence for professionalism and that posted clinical information is accurate and appropriate.

6. APhA advocates for continued development and utilization of social media by pharmacists and other health care professionals during public health emergencies.

(JAPhA 54(4) 357 July/August 2014)

Health Mobilization
2011,
2002,
1996

APhA should continue to:

1. Emphasize its support for programs on disaster preparedness which involve the services of pharmacists (e.g., Medical Reserve Corps) and emergency responder registration networks [e.g., Emergency System for Advance Registration of Volunteer Health Professions (ESAR-VHP)].

2. Improve and expand established channels of communication between pharmacists; local, state and national pharmacy associations, boards and colleges of pharmacy and allied health professions.

3. Maintain its present liaison with the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response (ASPR) of the Department of Health and Human Services and continue to seek Office of Emergency Management (OEM) assistance through professional service contracts to further develop pharmacy's activities in all phases of preparation before disasters.

4. Encourage routine inspection of drug stockpiles and disaster kits by state boards of pharmacy.

(JAPhA N)S6:328. June, 1966) (JAPhA NS42(5) Suppl. 1:S62. September/October 2002) (Reviewed 2006) (JAPhA NS51(4) 483;July/August 2011)(Reviewed 2016)

Pharmacy Personnel Immunization Rates
2007

1. APhA supports efforts to increase immunization rates of healthcare professionals, for the purposes of protecting patients, and urges all pharmacy personnel to receive all immunizations recommended by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) for healthcare workers.

2. APhA encourages employers to provide necessary immunizations to all pharmacy personnel.

3. APhA encourages federal, state, and local public health officials to recognize pharmacists as first responders (like physicians, nurses, police, etc.) and prioritize pharmacists to receive medications and immunizations.

(JAPhA NS45(5):580 September/October 2007) (Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2014)

Model Disaster Plan for Pharmacists
2006,
2002,
1971

1. The committee recommends that APhA develop a disaster plan for the guidance of pharmacy organizations in responding to the needs of pharmacists who experience losses from disasters and that this model plan be disseminated to state associations for their reference.

2. The committee recommends that APhA cooperate with associations representing pharmaceutical manufacturers, wholesale distributors, and others in the pharmaceutical supply system in developing a mechanism to facilitate the communication of information about the losses incurred by pharmacists as a result of disasters. Those firms that make it a practice to replace uninsured losses of inventories of their products could do so promptly and efficiently so that normal pharmaceutical services to the affected community are resumed as soon as possible.

(JAPhA NS11:256 May 1971) (JAPhA NS42(5): Suppl 1:S62, September/October 2002) (JAPhA NS46(5):562 September/October 2006)(Reviewed 2011)(Reviewed 2016)

Emergency Preparedness
2005,
2002

APhA supports the continuing efforts of the Joint Commission of Pharmacy Practitioners working group on emergency preparedness and response to network with the Office of Homeland Security and with any other relevant governmental and/or military agency.

(JAPhA NS42(5): Suppl. 1:S61 September/October 2002)(JAPhA NS45(5):559 September/October 2005)(Reviewed 2006)(Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2014)

Dispensing Authority
Patient Access to Pharmacist-Prescribed Medications
2017

1. APhA asserts that pharmacists' patient care services and related prescribing by pharmacists help improve patient access to care, patient outcomes, and community health, and they align with coordinated, team-based care.

2. APhA supports increased patient access to care through pharmacist prescriptive authority models.

3. APhA opposes requirements and restrictions that impede patient access to pharmacist-prescribed medications and related services.

4. APhA urges prescribing pharmacists to coordinate care with patients' other health care providers through appropriate documentation, communication, and referral.

5. APhA advocates that medications and services associated with prescribing by pharmacists must be covered and compensated in the same manner as for other prescribers.

6. APhA supports the right of patients to receive pharmacist-prescribed medications at the pharmacy of their choice.

(JAPhA 57(4): 441 July/August 2017)

Role of the Pharmacist in the Care of Patients Using Cannabis
2015

1. APhA supports regulatory changes to further facilitate clinical research related to the clinical efficacy and safety associated with the use of cannabis and its various components.

2. APhA encourages health care provider education related to the clinical efficacy, safety, and management of patients using cannabis and its various components.

3. APhA advocates that the pharmacist collect and document information in the pharmacy patient profile about patient use of cannabis and its various components and provide appropriate patient counseling.

4. APhA supports pharmacist participation in furnishing cannabis and its various components when scientific data support the legitimate medical use of the products and delivery mechanisms, and federal, state, or territory laws or regulations permit pharmacists to furnish them.

5. APhA opposes pharmacist involvement in furnishing cannabis and its various components for recreational use.

(JAPhA N55(4): 365 July/August 2015)

Revisions to the Medication Classification System
2013

1. APhA supports the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) efforts to revise the drug classification paradigms for prescription and nonprescription medications to allow greater access to certain medications under conditions of safe use while maintaining patients' relationships with their pharmacists and other health care providers.

2. APhA supports the implementation or modification of state laws to facilitate pharmacists' implementation and provision of services related to a revised drug classification system.

3. APhA supports a patient care delivery model built on coordination and communication between pharmacists and other health care team members in the evaluation and management of care delivery.

4. APhA affirms that pharmacists are qualified to provide clinical interventions on medications under FDA's approved conditions of safe use.

5. APhA urges manufacturers, FDA, and other stakeholders to include pharmacists' input in the development and adoption of technology and standardized processes for services related to medications under FDA's defined conditions of safe use.

6. APhA supports the utilization of best practices, treatment algorithms, and clinical judgment of pharmacists and other health care providers to guide the evaluation and management of care delivery related to medications under FDA's approved conditions of safe use.

7. APhA encourages the inclusion of medications and services provided under FDA's defined conditions of safe use within health benefit coverage.

8. APhA supports compensation of pharmacists and other health care professionals for the provision of services related to FDA's defined conditions of safe use programs.

(JAPhA 53(4): 365 July/August 2013)

Dispensing Criteria
2006,
2004,
1978

APhA supports vigorous enforcement of laws to ensure that all those who sell or dispense prescription and non-prescription drugs comply with legal criteria.

(Am Pharm. NS18(8):42 July 1978) (JAPhA NS44(5):551 September/October 2004) JAPhA NS46(5):562 September/October 2006) (Reviewed 2015)

Administration of Medications
2005,
1998

1. APhA recognizes and supports pharmacist administration of prescription and non-prescription drugs as a component of pharmacy practice.

2. APhA supports the development of educational programs and practice guidelines for student pharmacists and practitioners for the administration of prescription and non-prescription drugs.

3. APhA supports pharmacist compensation for administration of prescription and non-prescription drugs and services related to such administration.

4. APhA urges adoption of state laws and regulations authorizing pharmacist administration of prescription and non-prescription drugs.

(JAPhA 38(4): 417 July/August 1998) (JAPhA NS45(5):559 September/October 2005) (Reviewed 2006)(Reviewed 2011)(Reviewed 2012)(Reviewed 2017)

Issuing of Drugs by Non-pharmacists
2004,
1984

APhA supports issuing drug products to patients by non-pharmacists under the control and direction of pharmacists.

(Am Pharm NS24(7):60 July 1984) (JAPhA NS44(5):551 September/October 2004) (Reviewed 2006)(Reviewed 2011)(Reviewed 2016)

Emergency Contraception
2003,
2000

APhA supports the voluntary involvement of pharmacists, in collaboration with other health care providers, in emergency contraceptive programs that include patient evaluation, patient education, and direct provision of emergency contraceptive medications.

(JAPhA NS40(5):Suppl.1:S8 September/October 2000) (JAPhA NS43(5):Suppl. 1:S58 September/October 2003) (Reviewed 2006) (Reviewed 2008) (Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2014)

Dispensing and/or Administration of Legend Drugs in Emergency Situations
1979

1. APhA supports making insect sting kits and other, life-saving, emergency, treatment kits available for lawful dispensing by pharmacists without a prescription order, based on the pharmacist's professional judgment.

2. APhA supports permitting pharmacists to lawfully dispense and administer legend drugs in emergency situations, without an order from a licensed prescriber, provided that (a) There is an assessment on the part of the pharmacist and the patient that the drug is needed immediately to preserve the well-being of the patient, and; (b) The normal legal means for obtaining authorization to dispense the drug must not be immediately available, such as in cases where the patient's physician is not available, and; (c) The quantity of the drug, which can be dispensed in an emergency situation, is enough so that the emergency situation can subside and the patient can be sustained for the immediate emergency, as determined by the pharmacist's professional judgment.

3. APhA supports expansion of state Good Samaritan Acts to provide pharmacists immunity from professional liability for dispensing in emergency situations without order from a licensed prescriber.

4. APhA supports permitting pharmacists to lawfully dispense and/or administer legend drugs without an order from a licensed prescriber during disaster situations.

(Am Pharm NS19(7):68 June 1979) (Reviewed 2002) (Reviewed 2006) (Revised 2007)(Reviewed 2012)(Reviewed 2012)(Reviewed 2017)

Out-of-State Prescription Orders
1979

APhA supports the repeal of state laws, which prohibits the dispensing of an otherwise legal prescription order, issued by a prescriber licensed in another state.

(Am Pharm NS19(7):67 June 1979) (Reviewed 2004) (Reviewed 2006)(Reviewed 2011)(Reviewed 2016)

Drug Abuse, Control And Education
Drug Disposal Program Involvement
2017

APhA urges pharmacists to expand patient access to secure, convenient, and ecologically responsible drug disposal options, in accordance with the Secure and Responsible Drug Disposal Act of 2010, by implementing disposal programs they deem appropriate for their individual practice sites, patient care settings, and business models in an effort to reduce the amount of dispensed but unused prescription drug product available for diversion and misuse.

(JAPhA 57(4): 441 July/August 2017)

Medication-Assisted Treatment
2016

APhA supports expanding access to Medication Assisted Treatment (MAT), including but not limited to pharmacist-administered injection services for treatment and maintenance of substance use disorders that are based on a valid prescription.

(JAPhA 56(4); 370 July/August 2016)

Opioid Overdose Prevention
2016

1. APhA supports access to third-party (non-patient recipient) prescriptions for opioid reversal agents that are furnished by pharmacists.

2. APhA affirms that third-party (non-patient recipient) prescriptions should be reimbursed by public and private payers.

(JAPhA 56(4); 370 July/August 2016)

Substance Use Disorder
2016

1. APhA supports legislative, regulatory, and private sector efforts that include pharmacists' input and that will balance patient-consumers' need for access to medications for legitimate medical purposes with the need to prevent the diversion, misuse, and abuse of medications.

2. APhA supports consumer sales limits of nonprescription drug products, such as methamphetamine precursors, that may be illegally converted into drugs for illicit use.

3. APhA encourages education of all personnel involved in the distribution chain of nonprescription products so they understand the potential for certain products, such as methamphetamine precursors, to be illegally converted into drugs for illicit use. APhA supports patient-consumer education of consequences of methamphetamine use, misuse, and abuse.

4. APhA supports public and private initiatives to fund treatment and prevention of substance use disorders.

5. APhA supports stringent enforcement of criminal laws against individuals who engage in drug trafficking.

(JAPhA 56(4); 369 July/August 2016)

Substance Use Disorder Education
2016,
2003,
1987

APhA supports comprehensive substance use disorder education, prevention, treatment, and recovery programs.

(Am Pharm. NS27(6):424 June 1987) (JAPhA NS43(5): Suppl. 1:S58 September/October 2003) (Reviewed 2006)(Reviewed 2011) (JAPhA 56(4); 369 July/August 2016)

Integrated Nationwide Prescription Drug Monitoring Program
2015

1. APhA supports nationwide integration of prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMP) that incorporate federal, state, and territory databases for the purpose of providing health care professionals with accurate and real-time information to assist in clinical decision making when providing patient care services related to controlled substances.

2. APhA supports pharmacist involvement in the development of uniform standards for an integrated nationwide prescription drug monitoring program (PDMP) that includes the definition of authorized registered users, documentation, reporting requirements, system response time, security of information, minimum reporting data sets, and standard transaction format.

3. APhA supports mandatory prescription drug monitoring program (PDMP) enrollment by all health care providers, mandatory reporting by all those who dispense controlled substances, and appropriate system query by registrants during the patient care process related to controlled substances.

4. APhA advocates for the development of seamless workflow integration systems that would enable consistent use of a nationwide prescription drug monitoring program (PDMP) by registrants to facilitate prospective drug review as part of the patient care process related to controlled substances.

5. APhA advocates for continuous, sustainable federal funding sources for practitioners and system operators to utilize and maintain a standardized integrated and real-time nationwide prescription drug monitoring program (PDMP).

6. APhA supports the use of interprofessional advisory boards, that include pharmacists, to coordinate collaborative efforts for (a) compiling, analyzing, and using prescription drug monitoring program (PDMP) data trends related to controlled substance misuse, abuse, and/or fraud; (b) providing focused provider education and patient referral to treatment programs; and (c) supporting research activities on the impact of PDMPs.

7. APhA supports education and training for registrants about a nationwide prescription drug monitoring program (PDMP) to ensure proper data integrity, use, and confidentiality.

(JAPhA N55(4): 364 July/August 2015)

Controlled Substances and Other Medications with the Potential for Abuse and Use of Opioid Reversal Agents
2014

1. APhA supports education for pharmacists and student pharmacists to address issues of pain management, palliative care, appropriate use of opioid reversal agents in overdose, drug diversion, and substance-related and addictive disorders.

2. APhA supports recognition of pharmacists as the health care providers who must exercise professional judgment in the assessment of a patient's conditions to fulfill corresponding responsibility for the use of controlled substances and other medications with the potential for misuse, abuse, and/or diversion.

3. APhA supports pharmacists' access to and use of prescription monitoring programs to identify and prevent drug misuse, abuse, and/or diversion.

4. APhA supports the development and implementation of state and federal laws and regulations that permit pharmacists to furnish opioid reversal agents to prevent opioid-related deaths due to overdose.

5. APhA supports the pharmacist's role in selecting appropriate therapy and dosing and initiating and providing education about the proper use of opioid reversal agents to prevent opioid-related deaths due to overdose.

(JAPhA 54(4) July/August 2014)(Reviewed 2015)

Funding for Pharmacist Recovery Programs
2011,
2005,
2002

APhA supports and encourages a cooperative effort among state and national pharmacy associations, state boards of pharmacy, and state legislative bodies to authorize, develop, implement and maintain mechanisms for the comprehensive funding of state recovery programs for pharmacists, student pharmacists and pharmacy technicians.

(JAPhA NS42(5):Suppl. 1:S61 September/October 2002) (JAPhA NS45(5):559 September/October 2005) (Reviewed 2006)(Reviewed 2010) (JAPhA NS51(4) 483;July/August 2011)(Reviewed 2016)

Pharmacists with Impairments that Affect Practice
2005,
2003,
1982

1. APhA advocates that pharmacists should not practice while subject to physical or mental impairment due to the influence of drugs -- including alcohol -- or other causes that might adversely affect their abilities to function properly in their professional capacities.

2. APhA supports establishment of counseling, treatment, prevention, and rehabilitation programs for pharmacists and student pharmacists who are subject to physical or mental impairment due to the influence of drugs - including alcohol - or other causes, when such impairment has potential for adversely affecting their abilities to function in their professional capacities.

(Am Pharm NS22(7):32 July 1982) (JAPhA NS43(5):Suppl. 1:S58 September/October 2003) (JAPhA NS45(5:)559 September/October 2005)(Reviewed 2006)(Reviewed 2011)(Reviewed 2016)

Drug Addiction/Chemical Dependency Education
2003

APhA urges pharmacists and pharmacy students to become educated in the recognition and treatment of drug addiction and chemical dependency.

(JAPhA NS43(5):Suppl. 1:S57 September/October 2003) (Reviewed 2006)(Reviewed 2011)(Reviewed 2016)

Security: Pharmacists' Responsibility
2003,
1971

APhA encourages pharmacists to voluntarily remove all proprietary drug products with potential for abuse or adverse drug interactions from general sales areas and to make their dispensing the personal responsibility of the pharmacist.

(JAPhA NS11:267 May 1971)(JAPhA NS43(5):Suppl. 1:S58 September/October 2003)(Reviewed 2006)(Reviewed 2011)(Reviewed 2016)

The Use of Controlled Substances in the Treatment of Intractable Pain
2003,
1983

1. APhA supports the continued classification of heroin as a Schedule I controlled substance.

2. APhA supports research by qualified investigators under the Investigational New Drug (IND) process to explore the potential medicinal uses of Schedule I controlled substances and their analogues.

3. APhA supports comprehensive education to maximize the proper use of approved analgesic drugs for treating patients with chronic pain.

4. APhA recognizes that pharmacists receiving controlled substance prescription orders used for analgesia have a responsibility to ensure that the medication has been prescribed for a legitimate medical use and that patients achieve the intended therapeutic outcomes

5. APhA advocates that pharmacists play an important role on the patient care team providing pain control and management.

(Am Pharm NS23(6):52 June 1983)(JAPhA NS43(5):Suppl. 1:S58 September/October 2003)(Reviewed 2006)(Reviewed 2011)(Reviewed 2012)(Reviewed 2013)(Reviewed 2015)

Drug Enforcement Agency Employment Waiver
1997

APhA urges the Drug Enforcement Administration, in processing employment waiver requests, to defer to the decisions of state boards of pharmacy related to the licensure of pharmacists suffering from alcohol and other chemical dependencies.

(JAPhA NS37(4):459 July/August 1997)(Reviewed 2003) (Reviewed 2006)(Reviewed 2011) (Reviewed 2016)

Drug Testing in the Workplace
1990

APhA endorses the concept of the "Drug Free Workplace" and recommends that, where drug testing is performed in the workplace, it be conducted in conjunction with an employee assistance program.

(Am Pharm NS30(6):45 June 1990)(Reviewed 2003) (Reviewed 2006)(Reviewed 2011)(Reviewed 2016)

Innovative Approaches to Combating Pharmacy Crime
1982

1. APhA encourages federal government agencies to provide mechanisms for supporting experimental, drug-dependence, treatment programs based on principles of maintenance and/or detoxification.

2. APhA supports the development of a comprehensive educational program on drug use and misuse, starting with children in primary grades (kindergarten-Grade 5).

(Am Pharm NS22(7):32 July 1982) (Reviewed 2003) (Reviewed 2006) (Reviewed 2010) (Reviewed 2015)

Hallucinogens
Removal of Hallucinogenic Solvents from Paints, Sprays, and Glues
1981

APhA supports the denaturing of abused products containing hallucinogens by appropriate means, such as the addition of harmless chemicals with obnoxious scents or with the ability to produce nausea when the products are abused, but not when used as directed.

(Am Pharm NS21(5):40 May 1981)(Reviewed 2006)(Reviewed 2011)(Reviewed 2016)

Marijuana
Role of the Pharmacist in the Care of Patients Using Cannabis
2015

1. APhA supports regulatory changes to further facilitate clinical research related to the clinical efficacy and safety associated with the use of cannabis and its various components.

2. APhA encourages health care provider education related to the clinical efficacy, safety, and management of patients using cannabis and its various components.

3. APhA advocates that the pharmacist collect and document information in the pharmacy patient profile about patient use of cannabis and its various components and provide appropriate patient counseling.

4. APhA supports pharmacist participation in furnishing cannabis and its various components when scientific data support the legitimate medical use of the products and delivery mechanisms, and federal, state, or territory laws or regulations permit pharmacists to furnish them.

5. APhA opposes pharmacist involvement in furnishing cannabis and its various components for recreational use.

(JAPhA N55(4): 365 July/August 2015)

Medicinal Use of Marijuana
1980

1. APhA supports research by properly qualified investigators operating under the investigational new drug (IND) process to explore fully the potential medicinal uses of marijuana and its constituents or derivatives.

2. APhA opposes state by state, marijuana specific, or other drug specific legislation intended to circumvent the federal laws and regulations pertaining to (a) marketing approval of new drugs based on demonstrated safety and efficacy, or; (b) control restrictions relating to those substances having a recognized hazard of abuse.

(Am Pharm NS20(7):71 July 1980) (Reviewed 2003) (Reviewed 2006)(Reviewed 2011)(Reviewed 2015)

Methadone
Methadone Used as Analgesic and Antitussive
2003,1972

APhA encourages developers of methadone programs to place pharmacists in charge of their drug distribution and control systems.

(JAPhA NS12:308 June 1972) (JAPhA NS43(5):Suppl. 1:S58 September/October 2003) (Reviewed 2006)(Reviewed 2011)(Reviewed 2016)

Performance-Enhancing Drugs
Use of Performance-enhancing Drugs by Athletes
1986

1. APhA is opposed to the use of performance-enhancing drugs by athletes.

2. APhA should educate the public on the dangers of the use of performance-enhancing drugs by athletes.

3. APhA encourages enforcement of laws related to the use of performance-enhancing drugs by athletes.

(Am Pharm NS26(6):420 June 1986) (Reviewed 2003) (Reviewed 2006)

State Drug Laws and Legalization Issues
Legalization or Decriminalization of Illicit Drugs
2016,
1990

1. APhA opposes legalization of the possession, sale, distribution, or use of illicit drug substances for non-medical uses.

2. APhA supports the use of drug courts or other evidence-based mechanisms--when appropriate as determined by the courts--to provide alternate pathways within the criminal justice system for the treatment and rehabilitation of individuals who are charged with drug-related offenses and who have substance use or other related medical disorders.

3. APhA supports criminal penalties for persons convicted of drug-related crimes, including but not limited to drug trafficking, drug manufacturing, and drug diversion, whenever alternate pathways are inappropriate as determined by the courts.

(Am Pharm NS30(6):46 June 1990) (Reviewed 2003)(Reviewed 2006)(Reviewed 2011) ((JAPhA 56(4); 369 July/August 2016)

Controlled Substances Regulation and Patient Care
2012

1. APhA encourages the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) and other regulatory agencies to recognize pharmacists as partners that are committed to ensuring that patients in legitimate need of controlled substances are able to receive the medications.

2. APhA supports efforts to modernize and harmonize state and federal controlled substance laws.

3. APhA urges DEA and other regulatory agencies to balance patient care and regulatory issues when developing, interpreting, and enforcing laws and regulations.

4. APhA encourages DEA and other regulatory agencies to recognize the changes occurring in health care delivery and to establish a transparent and inclusive process for the timely updating of laws and regulations.

5. APhA encourages the U.S. Department of Justice to collaborate with professional organizations to identify and reduce: (a) the burdens on health care providers, (b) the cost of health care delivery, and (c) the barriers to patient care in the establishment and enforcement of controlled substance laws.

(JAPhA NS52(4) 457 July/August 2012)(Reviewed 2015)

Discontinuation of the Sale of Tobacco Products in Pharmacies and Facilities that Include Pharmacies
2010

1. APhA urges pharmacies and facilities that include pharmacies to discontinue the sale of tobacco products.

2. APhA urges the federal government and state governments to limit participation in government-funded prescription programs to pharmacies that do not sell tobacco products.

3. APhA urges state boards of pharmacy to discontinue issuing and renewing licenses to pharmacies that sell tobacco products and to pharmacies that are in facilities that sell tobacco products.

4. APhA urges colleges of pharmacy to only use pharmacies that do not sell tobacco products as experience sites for their students.

5. APhA urges the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE) to adopt the position that college-administered pharmacy experience programs should only use pharmacies that do not sell tobacco products.

6. APhA urges pharmacists and student pharmacists who are seeking employment opportunities to first consider positions in pharmacies that do not sell tobacco products.

(JAPhA NS40(4):471 July/August 2010) (Reviewed 2015)

Sale of Sterile Syringes
1999

APhA encourages state legislatures and boards of pharmacy to revise laws and regulations to permit the unrestricted sale or distribution of sterile syringes and needles by or with the knowledge of a pharmacist in an effort to decrease the transmission of blood-borne diseases.

(JAPhA 39(4): 447 July/August 1999)(Reviewed 2003)(Reviewed 2006)(Reviewed 2008)(Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2014)

Drug Classification
Revisions to the Medication Classification System
2013

1. APhA supports the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) efforts to revise the drug classification paradigms for prescription and nonprescription medications to allow greater access to certain medications under conditions of safe use while maintaining patients' relationships with their pharmacists and other health care providers.

2. APhA supports the implementation or modification of state laws to facilitate pharmacists' implementation and provision of services related to a revised drug classification system.

3. APhA supports a patient care delivery model built on coordination and communication between pharmacists and other health care team members in the evaluation and management of care delivery.

4. APhA affirms that pharmacists are qualified to provide clinical interventions on medications under FDA's approved conditions of safe use.

5. APhA urges manufacturers, FDA, and other stakeholders to include pharmacists' input in the development and adoption of technology and standardized processes for services related to medications under FDA's defined conditions of safe use.

6. APhA supports the utilization of best practices, treatment algorithms, and clinical judgment of pharmacists and other health care providers to guide the evaluation and management of care delivery related to medications under FDA's approved conditions of safe use.

7. APhA encourages the inclusion of medications and services provided under FDA's defined conditions of safe use within health benefit coverage.

8. APhA supports compensation of pharmacists and other health care professionals for the provision of services related to FDA's defined conditions of safe use programs.

(JAPhA 53(4): 365 July/August 2013)

Drug Classification System
2006

1. APhA supports restructuring the current drug classification system and drug approval process. Evidence should drive the restructuring beyond the current prescription and nonprescription classes to ensure appropriate access to medications and pharmacist services and improve medication use and outcomes.

2. APhA encourages pharmacists to exercise their professional judgment to manage access to nonprescription medications and dietary supplements to facilitate patient/caregiver interaction with their pharmacist.

(JAPhA NS46(5):561 September/October 2006)(Reviewed 2011)(Reviewed 2013)

Biologic, Biosimilar, and Interchangeable Biologic Drug Products
2016

1. APhA urges the development of programs and policies that facilitate patient access to and affordability of biologic products.

2. APhA urges the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to expedite the development of standards and pathways that will evaluate the interchangeability of biologic products.

3. APhA recognizes the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Purple Book as an authoritative reference about biologic product interchangeability within the United States.

4. APhA opposes interchangeable biologic product substitution processes that require authorization, recordkeeping, or reporting beyond generic product substitution processes.

5. APhA encourages scientific justification for extrapolation of indications for biologic products to ensure patient safety and optimal therapeutic outcomes.

(JAPhA 56(4); 369 July/August 2016)

Drug Pricing And Distribution
Drug Supply Shortages and Patient Care
2012

1. APhA supports the immediate reporting by manufacturers to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of disruptions that may impact the market supply of medically necessary drug products to prevent, mitigate, or resolve drug shortage issues and supports the authority for FDA to impose penalties for failing to report.

2. APhA supports revising current laws and regulations that restrict the FDA's ability to provide timely communication to pharmacists, other health care providers, health systems, and professional associations regarding potential or real drug shortages.

3. APhA encourages the FDA, the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), and other stakeholders to collaborate in order to minimize barriers (e.g., aggregate production quotas, annual assessment of needs, unapproved drug initiatives) that contribute to or exacerbate drug shortages.

4. APhA should actively support legislation to hasten the development of an efficient regulatory process to approve therapeutically equivalent generic versions of biologic drug products.

5. APhA encourages pharmacists and other health care providers to assist in maintaining continuity of care during drug shortage situations by: (a) creating a practice site drug shortage plan as well as policies and procedures, (b) using reputable drug shortage management and information resources in decision making, (c) communicating with patients and coordinating with other health care providers, (d) avoiding excessive ordering and stockpiling of drugs, (e) acquiring drugs from reputable distributors, and (f) heightening their awareness of the potential for counterfeit or adulterated drugs entering the drug distribution system.

6. APhA encourages accrediting and regulatory agencies and the pharmaceutical science and manufacturing communities to evaluate policies/procedures related to the establishment and use of drug expiration dates and any impact those policies/procedures may have on drug shortages.

7. APhA encourages the active investigation and appropriate prosecution of entities that engage in price gouging and profiteering of medically necessary drug products in response to drug shortages.

(JAPhA NS52(4) 457 July/August 2012)(Reviewed 2017)

Transfer Incentives
2010

APhA advocates the elimination of coupons, rebates, discounts, and other incentives provided to patients that promote the transfer of prescriptions between competitors.

(JAPhA NS40(4):471 July/August 2010)(Reviewed 2015)

Distribution Programs: Circumvention of the Pharmacist
2004,
1966

APhA opposes distribution programs and policies by manufacturers, governmental agencies, and voluntary health groups which circumvent the pharmacist and promote the dispensing of prescription, legend drugs by non-pharmacists. These programs and policies should, in the public interest, be eliminated.

(JAPhA NS6:293 June 1966) (JAPhA NS44(5):551 September/October 2004) (Reviewed 2006)(Reviewed 2011)(Reviewed 2016)

Manufacturers' Pricing Policies
2004,
1968

APhA supports pharmaceutical industry adoption of a "transparent pricing" system which would eliminate hidden discounts, free goods, and other subtle economic devices.

(JAPhA NS8:362 July 1968) (JAPhA NS44(5):551 September/October 2004) (Reviewed 2006)(Reviewed 2011)(Reviewed 2016)

Protecting the Integrity of the Medication Supply
2004

1. APhA encourages pharmacists to enhance their role in protecting the integrity of the medication supply, including careful consideration of the source and distribution pathways of the medications they dispense.

2. APhA recommends that all individuals and entities of the pharmaceutical supply system, including manufacturers, wholesalers, pharmacies, pharmacists, and others, adopt appropriate technology, tracking mechanisms, business practices, and other initiatives to protect the integrity of the drug supply.

3. APhA supports public education about the risk of using medications whose production, distribution, or sale does not comply with U.S. federal and state laws and regulations.

4. APhA urges pharmacists and other health care professionals to report suspected counterfeit products to the Food and Drug Administration.

(JAPhA NS44(5):551 September/October 2004)(Reviewed 2006)(Reviewed 2007)(Reviewed 2012)(Reviewed 2013)

Product Licensing Agreements and Restricted Distribution
1994

APhA opposes any manufacturer-provider relationship which involves product licensing agreements and/or restricted distribution arrangements which infringe on pharmacists' rights to provide pharmaceuticals and pharmaceutical care to their patients.

(Am Pharm NS34(6):55 June 1994) (Reviewed 2004) (Reviewed 2006)(Reviewed 2011)(Reviewed 2016)

Impact of Drug Distribution Systems on Integrity and Stability of Drug Products
1989

APhA encourages the development and use of quality-control procedures by all persons or entities involved in the distribution and dispensing of drug products. Such procedures should assure drug product integrity and stability in accordance with official compendia standards.

(Am Pharm NS29(7):464 July 1989) (Reviewed 2004) (Reviewed 2006) (Reviewed 2007)(Reviewed 2012)(Reviewed 2017)

Pharmaceutical Pricing
1985

APhA supports a system of equal opportunity with the same terms, conditions, and prices available for all pharmacies.

(Am Pharm NS25(5):52 May 1985) (Reviewed 2004) (Reviewed 2006)(Reviewed 2011)(Reviewed 2016)

Post-Marketing Requirements (Restricted Distribution)
1978

APhA opposes any legislation that would grant FDA authority to restrict the channels of drug distribution for any prescription drug as a condition for approval for marketing the drug under approved labeling.

(Am Pharm NS18(8):30 July 1978) (Reviewed 2004) (Reviewed 2006)(Reviewed 2011)(Reviewed 2016)

Biologic, Biosimilar, and Interchangeable Biologic Drug Products
2016

1. APhA urges the development of programs and policies that facilitate patient access to and affordability of biologic products.

2. APhA urges the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to expedite the development of standards and pathways that will evaluate the interchangeability of biologic products.

3. APhA recognizes the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Purple Book as an authoritative reference about biologic product interchangeability within the United States.

4. APhA opposes interchangeable biologic product substitution processes that require authorization, recordkeeping, or reporting beyond generic product substitution processes.

5. APhA encourages scientific justification for extrapolation of indications for biologic products to ensure patient safety and optimal therapeutic outcomes.

(JAPhA 56(4); 369 July/August 2016)

Opioid Overdose Prevention
2016

1. APhA supports access to third-party (non-patient recipient) prescriptions for opioid reversal agents that are furnished by pharmacists.

2. APhA affirms that third-party (non-patient recipient) prescriptions should be reimbursed by public and private payers.

(JAPhA 56(4); 370 July/August 2016)

Drug Product Packaging
Counterfeit Medication and Unit-of-Use Packaging
2012

APhA encourages the continued development, distribution, and use of unit-of-use packaging as the industry standard to enhance patient safety, patient adherence, and efficiencies in drug distribution, and to reduce potential for counterfeiting.

(JAPhA NS52(4) 458 July/August 2012)(Reviewed 2013)

Drug Product Packaging
2012,
2004,
1992

1. APhA supports the role of the pharmacist to select appropriate drug product packaging.

2. APhA supports the pharmaceutical industry's performance of compatibility and stability testing of drug products in officially defined containers to assist pharmacist selection of appropriate drug product packaging.

3. APhA supports the value of unit-of-use packaging to enhance patient care, but recognizes that product and patient needs may preclude its use.

4. APhA encourages the pharmaceutical industry to ensure that all unit-of-use packaging will accommodate a standard pharmacy label.

(Am Pharm NS32(6):515 June 1992) (JAPhA NS44(5): 551 September/October 2004) (Reviewed 2006) (Reviewed 2007) (JAPhA NS52(4) 458 July/August 2012)(Reviewed 2013)

Drug Product Packaging
2012

APhA supports the use of tamper-evident packaging on pharmaceutical products throughout the supply chain before dispensing to reduce the potential of counterfeit and/or adulterated medications reaching patients.

(JAPhA N552(4) 458 July/August 2012)(Reviewed 2017)

Medication Verification
2012

APhA encourages including a description of a medication's appearance on the pharmacy label or receipt as a means of reducing medication errors and distribution of counterfeit medications.

(JAPhA NS52(4) 458 July/August 2012)(Reviewed 2017)

Unit-of-Use Packaging
2006,
2003

1. APhA encourages the continued development, distribution, and use of unit-of-use packaging as the industry standard to enhance patient safety, patient compliance, and efficiencies in drug distribution.

2. APhA shall collaborate with the pharmaceutical industry, third-party payers, and appropriate federal agencies to effect the changes necessary for the adoption of unit-of-use packaging as the industry standard.

3. APhA encourages the enactment of legislation and regulations to permit pharmacists to modify prescribed quantities to correspond with commercially available unit-of-use packages.

(JAPhA NS43(5:)Suppl.1:S57 September/October 2003) (JAPhA NS46(5):562 September/October 2006) (Reviewed 2007)(Reviewed 2012)(Reviewed 2013)

Single Dose Containers for Parenteral Use
2004,
1971

APhA supports packaging all drugs intended for parenteral use in humans in single-dose containers, except where clearly not feasible.

(JAPhA NS11:270 May 1971) (JAPhA NS44(5):551 September/October 2004) (Reviewed 2006)(Reviewed 2011)(Reviewed 2016)

Drug Product Selection
Revisions to the Medication Classification System
2013

1. APhA supports the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) efforts to revise the drug classification paradigms for prescription and nonprescription medications to allow greater access to certain medications under conditions of safe use while maintaining patients' relationships with their pharmacists and other health care providers.

2. APhA supports the implementation or modification of state laws to facilitate pharmacists' implementation and provision of services related to a revised drug classification system.

3. APhA supports a patient care delivery model built on coordination and communication between pharmacists and other health care team members in the evaluation and management of care delivery.

4. APhA affirms that pharmacists are qualified to provide clinical interventions on medications under FDA's approved conditions of safe use.

5. APhA urges manufacturers, FDA, and other stakeholders to include pharmacists' input in the development and adoption of technology and standardized processes for services related to medications under FDA's defined conditions of safe use.

6. APhA supports the utilization of best practices, treatment algorithms, and clinical judgment of pharmacists and other health care providers to guide the evaluation and management of care delivery related to medications under FDA's approved conditions of safe use.

7. APhA encourages the inclusion of medications and services provided under FDA's defined conditions of safe use within health benefit coverage.

8. APhA supports compensation of pharmacists and other health care professionals for the provision of services related to FDA's defined conditions of safe use programs.

(JAPhA 53(4): 365 July/August 2013)

Potential Conflicts of Interest in Pharmacy Practice
2011

1. APhA reaffirms that as health care professionals, pharmacists are expected to act in the best interest of patients when making clinical recommendations.

2. APhA supports pharmacists using evidence-based practices to guide decisions that lead to the delivery of optimal patient care.

3. APhA supports pharmacist development, adoption, and use of policies and procedures to manage potential conflicts of interest in practice.

4. APhA should develop core principles that guide pharmacists in developing and using policies and procedures for identifying and managing potential conflicts of interest.

(JAPhA NS51(4) 482;July/August 2011)(Reviewed 2016)

Non-FDA-Approved Drugs and Patient Safety
2009

1. The American Pharmacists Association calls for education and collaboration among health professional organizations, federal agencies, and other stakeholders to ensure that all manufacturer, distributor, and repackager marketed prescription drugs used in patient care have been FDA-approved as safe and effective.

2. APhA supports initiatives aimed at closing regulatory and distribution-system loopholes that facilitate market entry of new prescription drugs products without FDA approval.

3. APhA encourages health professionals to consider FDA approval status of prescription drug products when making decisions about prescribing, dispensing, substitution, purchasing, formulary development, and in the development of pharmacy/medical education programs and drug information compendia.

(JAPhA NS49(4):492 July/August 2009)(Reviewed 2014)

Complementary and Alternative Medications
2005,
1997

1. APhA supports pharmacists using professional judgment to make informed decisions regarding the appropriateness of use or the sale of complementary and alternative medicines.

2. APhA shall assist pharmacists and student pharmacists in becoming knowledgeable about complementary and alternative medications to facilitate the counseling of patients regarding effectiveness, proper use, indications, safety and possible interactions.

(JAPhA NS37(4):July/August 1997) (Reviewed 2002) (JAPhA NS45(5):556-557 September/October 2005) (Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2014)

Licensure/Registration of Drug Manufacturers
2004,
1970

APhA supports the requirements that all drug manufacturers must obtain a federal license or registration, conditioned upon an inspection of the manufacturer's facilities, before manufacturing is begun.

(JAPhA NS10:347 June 1970)(JAPhA NS44(5):551 September/October 2004)(Reviewed 2006)(Reviewed 2010) (Reviewed 2015)

Uniform Designation for Drug Product Selection Authority
2001,
1989

APhA supports a uniform procedure nationwide for designating on a prescription order that drug product selection by the pharmacist is precluded by the prescriber.

(Am Pharm. NS29(1):67. January 1989) (JAPhA NS41(5) Suppl. 1:58, September/October, 2001) (Reviewed 2004) (Reviewed 2006)(Reviewed 2011)(Reviewed 2012)(Reviewed 2017)

Patient Access to Pharmacist-Prescribed Medications
2017

1. APhA asserts that pharmacists' patient care services and related prescribing by pharmacists help improve patient access to care, patient outcomes, and community health, and they align with coordinated, team-based care.

2. APhA supports increased patient access to care through pharmacist prescriptive authority models.

3. APhA opposes requirements and restrictions that impede patient access to pharmacist-prescribed medications and related services.

4. APhA urges prescribing pharmacists to coordinate care with patients' other health care providers through appropriate documentation, communication, and referral.

5. APhA advocates that medications and services associated with prescribing by pharmacists must be covered and compensated in the same manner as for other prescribers.

6. APhA supports the right of patients to receive pharmacist-prescribed medications at the pharmacy of their choice.

(JAPhA 57(4): 441 July/August 2017)

Anti-Substitution Laws
Anti-substitution Laws: Pharmacists' Responsibility
2004,
1971

APhA supports state substitution laws which emphasize the pharmacists' professional responsibility for determining, on the basis of available evidence, including professional literature, clinical studies, drug recalls, manufacturer reputation and other pertinent factors, that the drug products they dispense are therapeutically effective.

(JAPhA NS11:260. May, 1971) (JAPhA NS 44(5):551 September/October 2004) (Reviewed 2006)(Reviewed 2011)(Reviewed 2016)(Reviewed 2017)

Therapeutic Equivalence
Legislative Restrictions on Clinical Judgment
2017,
1982

APhA opposes the enactment of legislation which would act to restrict the clinical judgments of medical practitioners and other health professionals.

(Am Pharm NS22(7):32 July 1982) (Reviewed 2004) (Reviewed 2006) (Reviewed 2007)(Reviewed 2012)(JAPhA 57(4): 441 July/August 2017)

Biologic, Biosimilar, and Interchangeable Biologic Drug Products
2016

1. APhA urges the development of programs and policies that facilitate patient access to and affordability of biologic products.

2. APhA urges the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to expedite the development of standards and pathways that will evaluate the interchangeability of biologic products.

3. APhA recognizes the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Purple Book as an authoritative reference about biologic product interchangeability within the United States.

4. APhA opposes interchangeable biologic product substitution processes that require authorization, recordkeeping, or reporting beyond generic product substitution processes.

5. APhA encourages scientific justification for extrapolation of indications for biologic products to ensure patient safety and optimal therapeutic outcomes.

(JAPhA 56(4); 369 July/August 2016)

Biologic Drug Products
2012,
2007

APhA should initiate educational programs for pharmacists and other health care professionals concerning the determination of therapeutic equivalence of generic/biosimilar versions of biologic drug products

(JAPhA NS40(5):Suppl. 1:S8 September/October 2000) (Reviewed 2002) (Reviewed 2007)(Reviewed 2012)(Reviewed 2016)(Reviewed 2017)

Therapeutic Equivalence
1987

1. APhA encourages continuing dialogue with other health care organizations with regard to the role of the pharmacist in therapeutic interchange, including the formation of a task force to include representatives of pharmacy, industry, government, and medicine for the purpose of adoption of uniform terminology and definitions related to chemical, biological, and therapeutic equivalence.

2. APhA supports the concept of therapeutic interchange of various drug products by pharmacists under arrangements in which pharmacists and authorized prescribers interrelate on behalf of the care of patients.

(JAPhA NS27:424 June 1987) (Reviewed 2003) (Reviewed 2006)(Reviewed 2011)(Reviewed 2012)(Reviewed 2017)

Pharmaceutical Alternates
1983

APhA supports recognition of the pharmacist's role in the selection of pharmaceutical alternates (i.e., drug products containing the same therapeutic moiety, but differing in salt, ester, or comparable physical/chemical form or differing in dosage form)

(Am Pharm NS23(6):52 June 1983) (Reviewed 2004) (Reviewed 2006)(Reviewed 2011)(Reviewed 2016)

Drug Recalls
Product Recall Policy
2011,
2004,
1995

1. APhA supports:

a). the use of contemporary communications technologies to enhance communication of recall information to all relevant parties,

b). developing and promoting strategies to identify and communicate with patients who may have received recalled products, when appropriate,

c). identifying compensation mechanisms for resources expended in responding to recalls, and

d). maintaining the FDA recall program, which ensures that appropriate promptness of action can be taken based on the depth and severity of the recall.

(Am Pharm NS35(6):38 June 1995) (JAPhA NS44(5):551 September/October 2004) (Reviewed 2006) (JAPhA NS51(4) 483;July/August 2011)(Reviewed 2016)

Education, Curriculum And Competence For Pharmacists
Controlled Substances and Other Medications with the Potential for Abuse and Use of Opioid Reversal Agents
2014

1. APhA supports education for pharmacists and student pharmacists to address issues of pain management, palliative care, appropriate use of opioid reversal agents in overdose, drug diversion, and substance-related and addictive disorders.

2. APhA supports recognition of pharmacists as the health care providers who must exercise professional judgment in the assessment of a patient's conditions to fulfill corresponding responsibility for the use of controlled substances and other medications with the potential for misuse, abuse, and/or diversion.

3. APhA supports pharmacists' access to and use of prescription monitoring programs to identify and prevent drug misuse, abuse, and/or diversion.

4. APhA supports the development and implementation of state and federal laws and regulations that permit pharmacists to furnish opioid reversal agents to prevent opioid-related deaths due to overdose.

5. APhA supports the pharmacist's role in selecting appropriate therapy and dosing and initiating and providing education about the proper use of opioid reversal agents to prevent opioid-related deaths due to overdose.

(JAPhA 54(4) July/August 2014)(Reviewed 2015)

Competency and Training in Specific Areas
Contemporary Pharmacy Practice
2017,
2012

1. APhA asserts that pharmacists should have the authority and support to practice to the full extent of their education, training, and experience in delivering patient care in all practice settings and activities.

2. APhA supports continuing efforts toward establishing a consistent and accurate perception of the contemporary role and practice of pharmacists by the general public, patients, and all persons and institutions engaged in health care policy, administration, payment, and delivery.

3. APhA supports continued collaboration with stakeholders to facilitate adoption of standardized practice acts, appropriate related laws, and regulations that reflect contemporary pharmacy practice.

4. APhA supports the establishment of multistate pharmacist licensure agreements to address the evolving needs of the pharmacy profession and pharmacist-provided patient care.

5. APhA urges the continued development of consensus documents, in collaboration with medical associations and other stakeholders, that recognize and support pharmacists' roles in patient care as health care providers.

6. APhA urges universal recognition of pharmacists as health care providers and compensation based on the level of patient care provided using standardized and future health care payment models.

(JAPhA NS52(4) 457 July/August 2012)(Reviewed 2016) (JAPhA 57(4): 441 July/August 2017)

Substance Use Disorder Education
2016,
2003,
1987

APhA supports comprehensive substance use disorder education, prevention, treatment, and recovery programs.

(Am Pharm. NS27(6):424 June 1987) (JAPhA NS43(5): Suppl. 1:S58 September/October 2003) (Reviewed 2006)(Reviewed 2011) (JAPhA 56(4); 369 July/August 2016)

Pharmacist Training in Nutrition
2012,
1981

1. APhA advocates that all pharmacists become knowledgeable about the subject of nutrition.

2. APhA encourages schools and colleges of pharmacy as well as providers of continuing pharmacy education to offer education and training on the subject of nutrition.

(Am Pharm NS21(5):40 May 1981) (Reviewed 2003) (Reviewed 2006) (Reviewed 2007) (JAPhA NS52(4) 458 July/August 2012)(Reviewed 2017)

Pharmacist Training in Physical Assessments
2012,
1981

APhA supports education and training by schools and colleges of pharmacy, as well as providers of continuing pharmacy education, to prepare pharmacists to perform physical assessments of patients.

(Am Pharm NS21(5):40 May 1981) (Reviewed 2003) (Reviewed 2006) (Reviewed 2007)(JAPhA NS52(4) 458 July/August 2012)(Reviewed 2017)

Non-FDA-Approved Drugs and Patient Safety
2009

1. The American Pharmacists Association calls for education and collaboration among health professional organizations, federal agencies, and other stakeholders to ensure that all manufacturer, distributor, and repackager marketed prescription drugs used in patient care have been FDA-approved as safe and effective.

2. APhA supports initiatives aimed at closing regulatory and distribution-system loopholes that facilitate market entry of new prescription drugs products without FDA approval.

3. APhA encourages health professionals to consider FDA approval status of prescription drug products when making decisions about prescribing, dispensing, substitution, purchasing, formulary development, and in the development of pharmacy/medical education programs and drug information compendia.

(JAPhA NS49(4):492 July/August 2009)(Reviewed 2014)

Complementary and Alternative Medications
2005,
1997

1. APhA supports pharmacists using professional judgment to make informed decisions regarding the appropriateness of use or the sale of complementary and alternative medicines.

2. APhA shall assist pharmacists and student pharmacists in becoming knowledgeable about complementary and alternative medications to facilitate the counseling of patients regarding effectiveness, proper use, indications, safety and possible interactions.

(JAPhA NS37(4):July/August 1997) (Reviewed 2002) (JAPhA NS45(5):556-557 September/October 2005) (Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2014)

Pharmaceutical Biotechnology Products
2005,
1988

APhA recognizes the urgent need for education and training of pharmacists and student pharmacists relative to the therapeutic and diagnostic use of pharmaceutical biotechnology products. APhA, therefore, supports the continuing development and implementation of such education and training.

(Am Pharm NS28(6):394 June 1988) (JAPhA NS45(5):559 September/October 2005)(Reviewed 2006) (Reviewed 2007) (Reviewed 2010)(Reviewed 2015)(Reviewed 2016)(Reviewed 2017)

Drug Addiction/Chemical Dependency Education
2003

APhA urges pharmacists and pharmacy students to become educated in the recognition and treatment of drug addiction and chemical dependency.

(JAPhA NS43(5):Suppl. 1:S57 September/October 2003) (Reviewed 2006)(Reviewed 2011)(Reviewed 2016)

Credentialing and Pharmaceutical Care
2001

1. APhA should continue to assist in the unification of the profession and the development of a national strategy by its continued support of the Council on Credentialing in Pharmacy as the body responsible for the leadership, standards, public information and coordination of the professions voluntary credentialing programs.

2. APhA, in conjunction and cooperation with the Council on Credentialing and other national associations, should provide competence-based material and testing via technology, such as the APhA Web site and state association Web sites, to further the professions self-assessment.

3. APhA, in conjunction and cooperation with the Council on Credentialing and other national associations, should develop the necessary products and programs to educate the public, insurers, and health professionals on credentialing and make them available to state associations at cost.

4. APhA supports the development, on a continuing basis, of programs such as Project ImPACT, which provide the opportunity to promote the profession and its impact on clinical, economic, and humanistic patient outcomes.

(JAPhA NS41(5):Suppl.1:S8 Sept/Oct.2001) (Reviewed 2003) (Reviewed 2005) (Reviewed 2006) (Reviewed 2008) (Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2014)

Drug Product Equivalence
1987

APhA shall continue to support educational programs for pharmacists on issues regarding generic drugs.

(Am Pharm NS27(6):424 June 1987) (Reviewed 2003) (Reviewed 2006) (Reviewed 2007)

Pharmacist Training in Medical Technology
1981

1. APhA supports the education and training of pharmacists in the ordering and interpretation of laboratory tests as they may relate to the usage, dosing and administration of drugs.

2. APhA opposes requiring certification of pharmacists as medical technologists for the practice of pharmacy.

(Am Pharm NS21(5):40 May 1981) (Reviewed 2003) (Reviewed 2006)(Reviewed 2011)(Reviewed 2016)(Reviewed 2017)

Continuing Education
Integrated Nationwide Prescription Drug Monitoring Program
2015

1. APhA supports nationwide integration of prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMP) that incorporate federal, state, and territory databases for the purpose of providing health care professionals with accurate and real-time information to assist in clinical decision making when providing patient care services related to controlled substances.

2. APhA supports pharmacist involvement in the development of uniform standards for an integrated nationwide prescription drug monitoring program (PDMP) that includes the definition of authorized registered users, documentation, reporting requirements, system response time, security of information, minimum reporting data sets, and standard transaction format.

3. APhA supports mandatory prescription drug monitoring program (PDMP) enrollment by all health care providers, mandatory reporting by all those who dispense controlled substances, and appropriate system query by registrants during the patient care process related to controlled substances.

4. APhA advocates for the development of seamless workflow integration systems that would enable consistent use of a nationwide prescription drug monitoring program (PDMP) by registrants to facilitate prospective drug review as part of the patient care process related to controlled substances.

5. APhA advocates for continuous, sustainable federal funding sources for practitioners and system operators to utilize and maintain a standardized integrated and real-time nationwide prescription drug monitoring program (PDMP).

6. APhA supports the use of interprofessional advisory boards, that include pharmacists, to coordinate collaborative efforts for (a) compiling, analyzing, and using prescription drug monitoring program (PDMP) data trends related to controlled substance misuse, abuse, and/or fraud; (b) providing focused provider education and patient referral to treatment programs; and (c) supporting research activities on the impact of PDMPs.

7. APhA supports education and training for registrants about a nationwide prescription drug monitoring program (PDMP) to ensure proper data integrity, use, and confidentiality.

(JAPhA N55(4): 364 July/August 2015)

Interoperability of Communications Among Health Care Providers to Improve Quality of Patient Care
2015

1. APhA supports the establishment of secure, portable, and interoperable electronic patient health care records.

2. APhA supports the engagement of pharmacists with other stakeholders in the development and implementation of multidirectional electronic communication systems to improve patient safety, enhance quality care, facilitate care transitions, increase efficiency, and reduce waste.

3. APhA advocates for the inclusion of pharmacists in the establishment and enhancement of electronic health care information technologies and systems that must be interoperable, HIPAA compliant, integrated with claims processing, updated in a timely fashion, allow for data analysis, and do not place disproportionate financial burden on any one health care provider or stakeholder.

4. APhA advocates for pharmacists and other health care providers to have access to view, download and transmit electronic health records. Information shared among providers using a health information exchange should utilize a standardized secure interface based on recognized international health record standards for the transmission of health information.

5. APhA supports the integration of federal, state, and territory health information exchanges into an accessible, standardized, nationwide system.

6. APhA opposes business practices and policies that obstruct the electronic access and exchange of patient health information because these practices compromise patient safety and the provision of optimal patient care.

7. APhA advocates for the development of systems that facilitate and support electronic communication between pharmacists and prescribers concerning patient adherence, medication discontinuation, and other clinical factors that support quality care transitions.

8. APhA supports the development of education and training programs for pharmacists, student pharmacists, and other health care professionals on the appropriate use of electronic health records to reduce errors and improve the quality and safety of patient care.

9. APhA supports the creation and non-punitive application of a standardized, interoperable system for voluntary reporting of errors associated with the use of electronic health care information technologies and systems to enable aggregation of protected data and develop recommendations for improved quality.

(JAPhA N55(4): 364 July/August 2015)

The Use and Sale of Electronic Cigarettes (e-cigarettes)
2014

1. APhA opposes the sale of e-cigarettes and other vaporized nicotine products in pharmacies until such time that scientific data support the health and environmental safety of these products.

2. APhA opposes the use of e-cigarettes and other vaporized nicotine products in areas subject to current clean air regulations for combustible tobacco products until such time that scientific data support the health and environmental safety of these products.

3. APhA urges pharmacists to become more knowledgeable about e-cigarettes and other vaporized nicotine products.

4. APhA urges the FDA to require the full disclosure of all ingredients in e-cigarettes and other vaporized nicotine products in both the pre-use and vapor states.

(JAPhA 54(4) 358 July/August 2014)

Health Information Technology
2009

1. APhA supports the delivery of informatics education within pharmacy schools and continuing education programs to improve patient care, understand interoperability among systems, understand where to find information, increase productivity, and improve the ability to measure and report the value of pharmacists in the health care system.

2. APhA urges that pharmacists have read/write access to electronic health record data for the purposes of improving patient care and medication use outcomes.

3. APhA encourages inclusion of pharmacists in the definition, development, and implementation of health information technologies for the purpose of improving the quality of patient-centric health care.

4. APhA urges public and private entities to include pharmacist representatives in the creation of standards, the certification of systems, and the integration of medication use systems with health information technology.

(JAPhA NS49(4):492 July/August 2009) (Reviewed 2010)(Reviewed 2013)(Reviewed 2014) (Reviewed 2015)

Pharmacist's Role in Patient Safety
2009

1. It is APhA's position that patient safety initiatives must include pharmacists in leadership roles.

2. APhA encourages dissemination of best practices derived from nationally aggregated reporting data systems to pharmacists for the purpose of improving the medication use process and making informed decisions that directly impact patient safety and quality.

3. APhA encourages the profession of pharmacy to continually review and evaluate ways to enhance training, curricula, continuing education and accountability of pharmacists to improve patient safety.

4. APhA encourages risk management and post-marketing surveillance programs to be standardized and include infrastructures and compensation necessary to allow pharmacists to support these patient safety programs.

5. APhA supports the creation of voluntary, standardized and interoperable reporting systems for patient safety events to minimize barriers to pharmacist participation and to enable aggregation of data and improve quality of medication use systems. The system should be free, voluntary, non-punitive, easily accessible, and user friendly for all providers within the healthcare system.

6. APhA supports the elimination of hand-written prescriptions or medication orders.

(JAPhA NS49(4):492 July/August 2009) (Reviewed 2010) (Reviewed 2015)

Continuing Professional Development
2005

1. APhA supports continuing professional development, a self-directed, individualized, systematic approach to life-long learning, to support pharmacist's efforts to maintain professional competence in their practice.

2. APhA should work with appropriate organizations to provide self-assessment and plan development tools. APhA shall help identify and facilitate access to quality educational programs.

3. APhA encourages employers to foster and support pharmacist participation in continuing professional development.

4. Continuing professional development is a learning process that requires full participation to achieve desired individual outcomes. To facilitate that participation, each pharmacist controls disclosure of their individual assessments and outcomes.

(JAPhA NS45(5):554 September/October 2005) (Reviewed 2006) (Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2014)

Cross-Discipline Accreditation of Continuing Education
2005,
1992

1. APhA supports the acceptance, for pharmacy continuing education credit of relevant, quality programs offered by other health-related continuing education providers.

2. APhA supports the acceptance of relevant programs offered by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE)-accredited providers to meet continuing education requirements in other health disciplines.

(Am Pharm NS32(6):515 June 1992) (Reviewed 2003) (JAPhA NS45(5):560 September/October 2005) (Reviewed 2006)(Reviewed 2011)(Reviewed 2016)

Continued Competence Assessment Examination
2003,
1997

1. APhA should develop, in cooperation with other state and national associations, a voluntary process for self-assessing pharmaceutical care competence.

2. APhA opposes regulatory bodies utilizing continuing competence examinations as a requirement for renewal of a pharmacist's license.

3. APhA supports programs that measure and evaluate pharmacist competence based on established valid standards.

(JAPhA NS37(4): 460 July/August 1997) (JAPhA NS43(5):Suppl. 1:S58 September/October 2003)(Reviewed 2005) (Reviewed 2006)(Reviewed 2008)(Reviewed 2011)(Reviewed 2016)

Continuing Education
2003,
1974

APhA strongly endorses continuing education for pharmacists.

(JAPhA NS14:494 September 1974) (JAPhA NS43(5): Suppl. 1:S58 September/October 2003) (Reviewed 2005) (Reviewed 2006)(Reviewed 2011)(Reviewed 2016)

Use of Academic and Continuing Education Credit
1982

1. APhA supports the award of continuing education credit for the successful completion of academic credit courses within the scope of pharmacy practice under circumstances which preserve the integrity of both the academic and the continuing education credit.

2. APhA endorses the development and implementation by colleges of pharmacy and other appropriate organizations, of standards and mechanisms by which academic credit can be awarded for successful completion of continuing education courses under circumstances which preserve the integrity of the academic credit.

(Am Pharm NS22(7):33 July 1982) (Reviewed 2003) (Reviewed 2005) (Reviewed 2006)(Reviewed 2011)(Reviewed 2016)

Pharmacists' Responsibility for Continuing Competence
1975

APhA advocates that pharmacists maintain their professional competence throughout their professional careers.

(JAPhA NS15:336. June, 1975) (Reviewed 2001) (Reviewed 2003)(Reviewed 2005) (Reviewed 2006)(Reviewed 2011)(Reviewed 2016)

Degree/Designation
Distance Education in First Professional Pharmacy Degree Programs
2011,
2003

1. Distance education components of first professional pharmacy degree programs must be constructed in a way to assure socialization into the profession and understanding the ethos and essence of the profession, as such development is primarily derived through practical experience and interaction with faculty, colleagues and patients.

2. APhA expects the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education to develop, maintain, and enforce applicable standards to ensure students trained in distance education programs achieve the same educational and professional competencies as students in on-site programs.

(JAPhA NS43(5):Suppl.1:S56 September/October 2003) (Reviewed 2006) (JAPhA NS51(4) 482;July/August 2011)(Reviewed 2016)

Doctor of Pharmacy Attainment through Non-traditional Mechanisms
1991

1. APhA encourages schools and colleges of pharmacy to consider, in their strategic planning process, offering non-traditional, post-baccalaureate, doctor of pharmacy degree programs. Issues to be considered in such planning should include at least the following: (a) entry requirements; (b) educational and financial resources; and (c) competency evaluation for course credit.

2. APhA recommends that non-traditional, doctor of pharmacy degree programs have competency outcomes for graduates equal to those in traditional programs.

(Am Pharm NS31(6):28 June 1991) (Reviewed 2003) (Reviewed 2006)(Reviewed 2011)(Reviewed 2016)

Internships/Externships and Residencies
Pharmacy Practice-based Research Networks
2013,
2008

1. APhA supports establishment of pharmacy practice-based research networks (PBRNs) to strengthen the evidence base in support of pharmacists' patient care services.

2. APhA encourages collaborations among stakeholders to determine the minimal infrastructure and resources needed to develop and implement local, regional, and nationwide networks for performing pharmacy practice-based research.

3. APhA encourages pharmacy residency programs to actively participate in pharmacy PBRNs (practice-based research networks).

(JAPhA NS48(4):471 July/August 2008) (JAPhA 53(4) 366 July/August 2013)

Residency Training for Pharmacists
2013,
2008

1. APhA urges continued growth in the number of accredited pharmacy residency positions in all practice settings to better meet the future health care needs of the nation.

2. APhA encourages active involvement of schools and colleges of pharmacy in the development and advancement of accredited pharmacy practice residency programs.

3. APhA advocates for the allocation of adequate funding for accredited pharmacy residencies in all practice settings by governmental and other entities.

4. APhA supports postgraduate training for new PharmD graduates.

5. APhA supports accreditation of all pharmacy residency programs by federally recognized accrediting bodies to ensure quality training experiences.

(JAPhA NS48(4):470 July/August 2008) (JAPhA 53(4):366 July/August 2013)

Discontinuation of the Sale of Tobacco Products in Pharmacies and Facilities that Include Pharmacies
2010

1. APhA urges pharmacies and facilities that include pharmacies to discontinue the sale of tobacco products.

2. APhA urges the federal government and state governments to limit participation in government-funded prescription programs to pharmacies that do not sell tobacco products.

3. APhA urges state boards of pharmacy to discontinue issuing and renewing licenses to pharmacies that sell tobacco products and to pharmacies that are in facilities that sell tobacco products.

4. APhA urges colleges of pharmacy to only use pharmacies that do not sell tobacco products as experience sites for their students.

5. APhA urges the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE) to adopt the position that college-administered pharmacy experience programs should only use pharmacies that do not sell tobacco products.

6. APhA urges pharmacists and student pharmacists who are seeking employment opportunities to first consider positions in pharmacies that do not sell tobacco products.

(JAPhA NS40(4):471 July/August 2010) (Reviewed 2015)

Introductory Pharmacy Practice Experience
2010

APhA supports a collaborative effort amongst stakeholders (e.g., professional pharmacy organizations, deans, faculty, preceptors, and student pharmacists) to develop and implement a nationally defined set of competencies to assess the successful completion of introductory pharmacy practice experiences (IPPEs). APhA believes that these competencies should reflect the professional knowledge, attitudes, and skills necessary for entry into advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs).

(JAPhA NS40(4):471 July/August 2010) (Reviewed 2015)

Experiential Education
2008

1. APhA urges state boards of pharmacy, the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE), the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP), and other professional associations; employers; and other stakeholders to collaborate in the development of a blueprint that evaluates, streamlines, and consolidates all student pharmacists' experiential education requirements.

2. APhA encourages the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP), in collaboration with state boards of pharmacy, practitioner organizations, and other stakeholders, to develop national standardization among schools and colleges of pharmacy to improve the quality of student pharmacists' experiential education. This standardization should be adopted by all schools and colleges of pharmacy and should include the following: (a) a preceptor training program; (b) a model instrument for preceptors to evaluate student pharmacist performance in required pharmacy practice experiences; (c) a set of quality indicators for each required pharmacy practice experience; and (d) a report of quality indicator outcomes made available to all schools and colleges of pharmacy, faculty, and current and prospective students.

3. APhA urges schools and colleges of pharmacy to dedicate adequate and equitable financial and human resources to experiential education.

(JAPhA NS48(4):470 July August 2008)(Reviewed 2013)

Expansion and Recognition of Internship, Externship, and Clerkships
2005,
1990

1. APhA encourages schools and colleges of pharmacy to establish and maintain experiential education programs in nontraditional areas of practice.

2. APhA encourages state boards of pharmacy to accept, at least on an hour-for-hour basis, hours of experiential education obtained in nontraditional areas of pharmacy practice as fulfilling internship hour requirements.

(Am Pharm NS30(6):45 June 1990)(Reviewed 2003)(JAPhA NS45(5):560 September/October 2005)(Reviewed 2006)(Reviewed 2008)(Reviewed 2013)

Regulation of Student Pharmacists' Practice Experience
2005

1. APhA encourages state boards of pharmacy to use the title "student pharmacist" to identify all students enrolled in their professional years of pharmacy education in an Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE) accredited program.

2. APhA encourages state boards of pharmacy to permit a student pharmacist to perform the duties of a pharmacist within the applicable state's scope of practice under a pharmacist's supervision. Preceptors shall consider the experience and education of student pharmacists when providing pharmacy practice opportunities.

(JAPhA NS45(5):554 September/October 2005)(Reviewed 2006)(Reviewed 2008)(Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2013)

Pharmacy School Curriculum
Professional Development of Student Pharmacists
2016,
2005,
1995

1. APhA believes that it is essential to integrate professionalism throughout a student pharmacist's educational experience.

2. APhA will assist schools and colleges of pharmacy to develop and utilize recruitment materials that emphasize the professional role and responsibilities associated with the provision of pharmaceutical care.

3. APhA supports schools and colleges of pharmacy interviewing candidates during the admissions process to assess their characteristics for the potential for development of professional attitudes and behaviors.

4. APhA recommends that schools and colleges of pharmacy administer the model pledge of professionalism, as developed by the APhA-ASP/American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy Council of Deans Task Force on Professionalism, to all student pharmacists.

5. APhA encourages schools and colleges of pharmacy and the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy to develop and implement ongoing programs for faculty, staff, preceptors, and other mentors to enhance their ability to serve as role models and teach professionalism.

6. APhA supports the continuation of a forum for faculty, students, preceptors, and others to establish and foster mentor relationships.

(Am Pharm NS35(6):36 June 1995) (Reviewed 2003) (JAPhA NS45(5):554 September/October 2005) (Reviewed 2006)(Reviewed 2011)(JAPhA 56(4); 379 July/August 2016)

Interoperability of Communications Among Health Care Providers to Improve Quality of Patient Care
2015

1. APhA supports the establishment of secure, portable, and interoperable electronic patient health care records.

2. APhA supports the engagement of pharmacists with other stakeholders in the development and implementation of multidirectional electronic communication systems to improve patient safety, enhance quality care, facilitate care transitions, increase efficiency, and reduce waste.

3. APhA advocates for the inclusion of pharmacists in the establishment and enhancement of electronic health care information technologies and systems that must be interoperable, HIPAA compliant, integrated with claims processing, updated in a timely fashion, allow for data analysis, and do not place disproportionate financial burden on any one health care provider or stakeholder.

4. APhA advocates for pharmacists and other health care providers to have access to view, download and transmit electronic health records. Information shared among providers using a health information exchange should utilize a standardized secure interface based on recognized international health record standards for the transmission of health information.

5. APhA supports the integration of federal, state, and territory health information exchanges into an accessible, standardized, nationwide system.

6. APhA opposes business practices and policies that obstruct the electronic access and exchange of patient health information because these practices compromise patient safety and the provision of optimal patient care.

7. APhA advocates for the development of systems that facilitate and support electronic communication between pharmacists and prescribers concerning patient adherence, medication discontinuation, and other clinical factors that support quality care transitions.

8. APhA supports the development of education and training programs for pharmacists, student pharmacists, and other health care professionals on the appropriate use of electronic health records to reduce errors and improve the quality and safety of patient care.

9. APhA supports the creation and non-punitive application of a standardized, interoperable system for voluntary reporting of errors associated with the use of electronic health care information technologies and systems to enable aggregation of protected data and develop recommendations for improved quality.

(JAPhA N55(4): 364 July/August 2015)

Use of Social Media
2014

1. APhA encourages the use of social media in ways that advance patient care and uphold pharmacists as trusted and accessible health care providers.

2. APhA supports the use of social media as a mechanism for the delivery of patient-specific care in a platform that allows for appropriate patient and provider protections and access to necessary health care information.

3. APhA supports the inclusion of social media education, including but not limited to appropriate use and professionalism, as a component of pharmacy education and continuing professional development.

4. APhA affirms that the patient's right to privacy and confidentiality shall not be compromised through the use of social media.

5. APhA urges pharmacists and student pharmacists to self-monitor their social media presence for professionalism and that posted clinical information is accurate and appropriate.

6. APhA advocates for continued development and utilization of social media by pharmacists and other health care professionals during public health emergencies.

(JAPhA 54(4) 357 July/August 2014)

Discontinuation of the Sale of Tobacco Products in Pharmacies and Facilities that Include Pharmacies
2010

1. APhA urges pharmacies and facilities that include pharmacies to discontinue the sale of tobacco products.

2. APhA urges the federal government and state governments to limit participation in government-funded prescription programs to pharmacies that do not sell tobacco products.

3. APhA urges state boards of pharmacy to discontinue issuing and renewing licenses to pharmacies that sell tobacco products and to pharmacies that are in facilities that sell tobacco products.

4. APhA urges colleges of pharmacy to only use pharmacies that do not sell tobacco products as experience sites for their students.

5. APhA urges the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE) to adopt the position that college-administered pharmacy experience programs should only use pharmacies that do not sell tobacco products.

6. APhA urges pharmacists and student pharmacists who are seeking employment opportunities to first consider positions in pharmacies that do not sell tobacco products.

(JAPhA NS40(4):471 July/August 2010) (Reviewed 2015)

Introductory Pharmacy Practice Experience
2010

APhA supports a collaborative effort amongst stakeholders (e.g., professional pharmacy organizations, deans, faculty, preceptors, and student pharmacists) to develop and implement a nationally defined set of competencies to assess the successful completion of introductory pharmacy practice experiences (IPPEs). APhA believes that these competencies should reflect the professional knowledge, attitudes, and skills necessary for entry into advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs).

(JAPhA NS40(4):471 July/August 2010) (Reviewed 2015)

Health Information Technology
2009

1. APhA supports the delivery of informatics education within pharmacy schools and continuing education programs to improve patient care, understand interoperability among systems, understand where to find information, increase productivity, and improve the ability to measure and report the value of pharmacists in the health care system.

2. APhA urges that pharmacists have read/write access to electronic health record data for the purposes of improving patient care and medication use outcomes.

3. APhA encourages inclusion of pharmacists in the definition, development, and implementation of health information technologies for the purpose of improving the quality of patient-centric health care.

4. APhA urges public and private entities to include pharmacist representatives in the creation of standards, the certification of systems, and the integration of medication use systems with health information technology.

(JAPhA NS49(4):492 July/August 2009) (Reviewed 2010)(Reviewed 2013)(Reviewed 2014) (Reviewed 2015)

Pharmacist's Role in Patient Safety
2009

1. It is APhA's position that patient safety initiatives must include pharmacists in leadership roles.

2. APhA encourages dissemination of best practices derived from nationally aggregated reporting data systems to pharmacists for the purpose of improving the medication use process and making informed decisions that directly impact patient safety and quality.

3. APhA encourages the profession of pharmacy to continually review and evaluate ways to enhance training, curricula, continuing education and accountability of pharmacists to improve patient safety.

4. APhA encourages risk management and post-marketing surveillance programs to be standardized and include infrastructures and compensation necessary to allow pharmacists to support these patient safety programs.

5. APhA supports the creation of voluntary, standardized and interoperable reporting systems for patient safety events to minimize barriers to pharmacist participation and to enable aggregation of data and improve quality of medication use systems. The system should be free, voluntary, non-punitive, easily accessible, and user friendly for all providers within the healthcare system.

6. APhA supports the elimination of hand-written prescriptions or medication orders.

(JAPhA NS49(4):492 July/August 2009) (Reviewed 2010) (Reviewed 2015)

Pharmacy Schools' Curriculum and Contemporary Pharmacy Needs
2005,
1990

1. APhA will work with schools and colleges of pharmacy and pharmacy organizations to address differences between contemporary pharmacy practice and curriculum offerings.

2. APhA encourages pharmacists to cooperate with schools and colleges of pharmacy by participating as preceptors and permitting their practices to be used as experiential sites.

(Am Pharm NS30(6):45 June 1990)(Reviewed 2001) (Reviewed 2003)(JAPhA NS45(5):560 September/October 2005)(Reviewed 2006)(Reviewed 2008)(Reviewed 2013)

Regulation of Student Pharmacists' Practice Experience
2005

1. APhA encourages state boards of pharmacy to use the title "student pharmacist" to identify all students enrolled in their professional years of pharmacy education in an Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE) accredited program.

2. APhA encourages state boards of pharmacy to permit a student pharmacist to perform the duties of a pharmacist within the applicable state's scope of practice under a pharmacist's supervision. Preceptors shall consider the experience and education of student pharmacists when providing pharmacy practice opportunities.

(JAPhA NS45(5):554 September/October 2005)(Reviewed 2006)(Reviewed 2008)(Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2013)

Payment System Reform Curriculum
1993

APhA encourages the colleges and schools of pharmacy to incorporate the concept of payment system reform throughout the curricula for all professional programs, and should work with pharmacy organizations to ensure the integration of these concepts into practitioners' continuing development.

(Am Pharm NS33(7):54 July 1993) (Reviewed 2003) (Reviewed 2006)(Reviewed 2011)(Reviewed 2016)

Professional Ethics in Educational Curricula and Practice
1988

APhA supports the incorporation of professional ethics instruction in pharmacy curricula and post-graduate continuing education and training.

(Am Pharm NS28(6):394 June 1988) (Reviewed 2003) (Reviewed 2005) (Reviewed 2006)(Reviewed 2011)(Reviewed 2016)

Primary and Secondary Education in Science, Mathematics, and English
1984

APhA supports efforts to improve education at the primary and secondary school levels, particularly in the areas of science, mathematics, and English.

(Am Pharm NS24(7):60 July 1984) (Reviewed 2003) (Reviewed 2006)(Reviewed 2011)(Reviewed 2016)

Employer/employee Relations
Other Employment Issues
Equal Rights and Opportunities for Pharmacy Personnel
2017,
2012,
1989

APhA reaffirms its unequivocal support of equal opportunities for employment and advancement, compensation, and organizational leadership positions. APhA opposes discrimination based on sex, gender identity or expression of race, color, religion, national origin, age, disability, genetic information, sexual orientation, or any other category protected by federal or state law.

(Am Pharm NS 29(7):464 July 1989) (Reviewed 2001) (Reviewed 2007)(JAPhA NS52(4) 459 July/August 2012)(JAPhA 57(4): 441 July/August 2017)

Independent Practice of Pharmacists
2013,
2009

1. APhA recommends that health plans and payers contract with and appropriately compensate individual pharmacist providers for the level of care rendered without requiring the pharmacist to be associated with a pharmacy.

2. APhA supports adoption of state laws and rules pertaining to the independent practice of pharmacists when those laws and rules are consistent with APhA policy.

3. APhA, recognizing the positive impact that pharmacists can have in meeting unmet needs and managing medical conditions, supports the adoption of laws and regulations and the creation of payment mechanisms for appropriately trained pharmacists to autonomously provide patient care services, including prescribing, as part of the health care team.

(JAPhANS 49(4):492 July/August 2009)(Reviewed 2012)(JAPhA 53(4):366 July/August 2013)

Pharmacist Workforce Census
2012,
2001,
1969

1. APhA recognizes the need for an ongoing census of pharmacists to establish and track changes in workforce demographics and practice characteristics.

2. APhA urges the federal government or other stakeholders to establish funding mechanisms to conduct an ongoing census of pharmacists to establish and track changes in workforce demographics and practice characteristics.

(JAPhA NS9:361 July 1969) (JAPhA NS41(5):Suppl.1:S9 September/October 2001) (Reviewed 2007) (JAPhA NS52(4) 458 July/August 2012)(Reviewed 2017)

Requiring Influenza Vaccination for All Pharmacy Personnel
2011

APhA supports an annual influenza vaccination as a condition of employment, training, or volunteering within an organization that provides pharmacy services or operates a pharmacy or pharmacy department (unless a valid medical or religious reason precludes vaccination).

(JAPhA NS51(4) 482;July/August 2011)(Reviewed 2012)(Reviewed 2017)

Internet Access by Pharmacists
2008

APhA supports ready access to Internet resources by pharmacists at their practice sites to facilitate delivery of patient care and to support professional development.

(JAPhA NS 48(4):471 July/August 2008)(Reviewed 2013)

Pharmacy Personnel Immunization Rates
2007

1. APhA supports efforts to increase immunization rates of healthcare professionals, for the purposes of protecting patients, and urges all pharmacy personnel to receive all immunizations recommended by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) for healthcare workers.

2. APhA encourages employers to provide necessary immunizations to all pharmacy personnel.

1. APhA supports efforts to increase immunization rates of healthcare professionals, for the purposes of protecting patients, and urges all pharmacy personnel to receive all immunizations recommended by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) for healthcare workers.

2. APhA encourages employers to provide necessary immunizations to all pharmacy personnel.

3. APhA encourages federal, state, and local public health officials to recognize pharmacists as first responders (like physicians, nurses, police, etc.) and prioritize pharmacists to receive medications and immunizations.

(JAPhA NS45(5):580 September/October 2007) (Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2014)

Work Schedules
2001

1. APhA supports a work environment in which innovative work schedules are available to pharmacists and encourages employers to allow meal breaks and rest periods.

2. APhA encourages employers to offer benefit packages that provide dependent-care benefits, including, but not limited to, flexible spending accounts, voucher systems, referral services, on-site dependent care, and negotiated discounts for use of day care facilities, to improve workforce conditions.

(JAPhA NS(5):Suppl.1:S10 September/October 2001)(Reviewed 2007)(Reviewed 2012)(Reviewed 2017)

Consideration of the Equal Rights Amendment
1979

APhA supports efforts to assure equal rights of all persons.

(AmPharm NS19(7):60 June 1979) (Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2014)

Productivity Requirements
Unionization of Pharmacists: State Participation in Employer/Employee Relations
1999,
1970

The committee endorses the recommendations in the Provisional Policy Statement on Employment Standards submitted by the Board of Trustees at the special meeting of the House of Delegates in November, 1969. The committee recommends that any change in this statement to provide that APhA function as a collective bargaining unit be rejected.

(JAPhA NS10:353 June 1970) (JAPhA 39(4):447 July/August 1999) (Reviewed 2001) (Reviewed 2007)(Reviewed 2012)(Reviewed 2017)

Unionization
Collective Bargaining/Unionization
2012,
1999

1. APhA supports pharmacists' participation in organizations that promote the discretion or professional prerogatives exercised by pharmacists in their practice, including the provision of patient care.

2. APhA supports the rights of pharmacists to negotiate with their respective employers for working conditions that will foster compliance with the standards of patient care as established by the profession.

(JAPhA 39(4): 447 July/August 1999) (Reviewed 2001) (Reviewed 2007) (JAPhA NS52(4) 458 July/August 2012)(Reviewed 2017)

Unionization of Pharmacists
1999,
1971

1. The committee recommends that no change be made in the present policy of APhA with regard to becoming a collective bargaining unit.

2. The committee recommends that APhA continue its educational efforts concerning the mutual responsibilities of the employer and employee pharmacist inherent in the employment relationship.

3. The committee recommends that APhA continue to urge state associations to develop employee/employer relations committees to: (a) Study all aspects of both the professional and employment relationships that exist between the employer and the employee; (b) Develop and recommend guidelines to provide direction and guidance to both the employed pharmacist and the employer in developing a mutually acceptable relationship; (c) Conduct necessary surveys designed to provide information on salaries, benefits, and specific problems with attention given to possible regional variations in the data obtained, and; (d) Consider the establishment of an employment standards committee where feasible in each appropriate area of the state to act in an advisory and/or arbitrating capacity on matters pertaining to employment standards and employment grievances

4. The committee recommends that colleges of pharmacy include the subject of employer/ employee relations within an appropriate course of the curriculum.

(JAPhA NS11:273 May 1971) (JAPhA 39(4):447 July/August 1999) (Reviewed 2001) (Reviewed 2007)(Reviewed 2012)(Reviewed 2017)

Working Conditions
Employment Standards Policy Statement
2012,
2007,
1970

The employment relationship between pharmacists and their employers must start with the principle that pharmacists have a professional, inherent right to practice in a manner which will engender self-respect in pursuit of their professional and economic objectives.

It is the policy of APhA to further the following basic employment standards:

1. Employers are obligated to respect the professional status, privileges, and responsibilities of employed pharmacists.

2. Employers are obligated to provide working conditions that enhance the ability of employed pharmacists to utilize their full professional capacity in providing patient care service to the public.

3. Employers are obligated to provide employed pharmacists opportunities to increase their professional knowledge and experience.

4. Employers are obligated to fairly compensate employed pharmacists commensurate with their duties and performances. Such compensation should include benefits generally available to other professionals including, but not limited to, vacation, sick leave, insurance plans, and retirement programs.

5. Employed pharmacists are obligated to use their best efforts to further the services offered to the public by their employers.

6. Employed pharmacists are obligated to unhesitantly bring to the attention of their employers all matters which will assist the employers in maintaining professional standards and successful practices.

7. Employed pharmacists are obligated, when negotiating compensation, to consider not only prevailing economic conditions in their community, but also their economic position relative to other health care professionals.

8. Employed pharmacists are obligated to recognize that their responsibility includes not depriving the public of their patient care services by striking in support of their economic demands or those of others.

9. Both employers and employed pharmacists are obligated to reach and maintain definite understandings with regards to their respective economic rights and duties by resolving employment issues fairly, promptly, and in good faith.

It is the policy of APhA to support these basic employment standards by:

1. Encouraging and assisting state pharmacists associations and national specialty associations to establish broadly representative bodies to study the subject of professional and economic relations and to establish locally responsive guidelines to assist employers and employed pharmacists in developing satisfactory employment relationships.

2. Encouraging and assisting state pharmacists associations and national specialty associations to use their good offices, whenever invited, to resolve specific issues which may arise.

3. Assisting state pharmacists associations and national specialty associations to use their good offices, whenever invited, to resolve specific issues which may arise.

4. Assisting state pharmacists associations and national specialty associations to develop procedures for mediation or arbitration of disputes which may arise between employers and employed pharmacists so that pharmacists can call on their profession for such assistance when required.

5. Increasing its activities directed towards educating the profession about the mutual employment responsibilities of employers and employed pharmacists.

6. Developing benefits programs wherever possible to assist employers in providing employed pharmacists with economic security.

7. Continuously reminding pharmacists that the future development and status of pharmacy as a health profession rests in their willingness and ability to maintain control of their profession.

(JAPhA NS10:363 June 1970) (Reviewed 2001) (JAPhA NS45(5):580 September-October 2007)(JAPhA NS52(4) 458 July/August 2012)(Reviewed 2017)

Impact of the Pharmacists' Working Conditions on Public Safety
2012,
2007,
2001,
1995

1. APhA recognizes that the quality of a pharmacist's work-life affects public safety and that a working environment conducive to providing effective patient care is essential.

2. APhA opposes the practice of imposing minimum numbers of prescriptions which pharmacists are to dispense in a given period of time. Further, APhA opposes employment practices that evaluate a pharmacist's performance on the basis of set quotas of work performed.

3. APhA opposes employment practices that limit a pharmacist's ability to provide effective patient care.

(Am Pharm NS35(6):36 June 1995) (JAPhA NS4(5):Suppl. 1:58 September/October 2001) (Reviewed 2001) (JAPhA NS45(5):580 September-October 2007)(JAPhA NS52(4) 459 July/August 2012)(Reviewed 2017)

Pharmacy Practice: Professional Judgment
2004,
1977

1. APhA supports a pharmacist's right, regardless of place or style of practice, to exercise individual professional judgment and complete authority for those individual professional responsibilities assumed.

2. APhA supports decision-making processes that ensure the opportunity for input by all pharmacists affected by the decisions.

(JAPhA NS17:463 July 1977) (JAPhA NS44(5):551 September/October 2004) (Reviewed 2007)(Reviewed 2012)(Reviewed 2017)

Sexual Harassment in the Workplace
2004,
1994

1. APhA supports the principle that all work environments and educational settings be free of sexual harassment.

2. APhA recommends all pharmacy practice environments and educational settings have a written policy on sexual harassment prevention and grievance procedures.

3. APhA recommends that every owner/employer in facilities where pharmacists work institute a sexual harassment awareness education and training program for all employees.

4. APhA supports the wide distribution of the model guidelines on "Sexual Harassment Prevention and Grievance Procedures".

(AmPharm NS34(6):55 June 1994)(Reviewed 2001)(JAPhA NS44(5):551 September/October 2004)(Reviewed 2010)(Reviewed 2015)

Stress and Conflict in the Workplace
2001

APhA encourages employers to provide pharmacists with the tools required to manage stress and conflict within the workplace.

(JAPhA NS41(5):Suppl.1:S9 September/October, 2001) (Reviewed 2007)(Reviewed 2012)(Reviewed 2017)

Environmental Concerns
The Use and Sale of Electronic Cigarettes (e-cigarettes)
2014

1. APhA opposes the sale of e-cigarettes and other vaporized nicotine products in pharmacies until such time that scientific data support the health and environmental safety of these products.

2. APhA opposes the use of e-cigarettes and other vaporized nicotine products in areas subject to current clean air regulations for combustible tobacco products until such time that scientific data support the health and environmental safety of these products.

3. APhA urges pharmacists to become more knowledgeable about e-cigarettes and other vaporized nicotine products.

4. APhA urges the FDA to require the full disclosure of all ingredients in e-cigarettes and other vaporized nicotine products in both the pre-use and vapor states.

(JAPhA 54(4) 358 July/August 2014)

Medication Take-Back/Disposal Programs
2013

1. APhA encourages pharmacist involvement in the planning and coordination of medication take-back programs for the purpose of disposal.

2. APhA supports increasing public awareness regarding medication take-back programs for the purpose of disposal.

3. APhA urges public and private stakeholders, including local, state, and federal agencies, to coordinate and create uniform, standardized regulations, including issues related to liability and sustainable funding sources, for the proper and safe disposal of unused medications.

4. APhA recommends ongoing medication take-back and disposal programs.

(JAPhA 53(4): 365 July/August 2013)

Medication Disposal
2009

1. APhA encourages appropriate public and private partnerships to accept responsibility for the costs of implementing safe medication disposal programs for consumers. Furthermore, APhA urges DEA to permit the safe disposal of controlled substances by consumers.

2. APhA encourages provision of patient-appropriate quantities of medication supplies to minimize unused medications and unnecessary medication disposal.

(JAPhA NS49(4):493 July/August 2009)(Reviewed 2012)(Reviewed 2013)

Re-Distribution of Previously Dispensed Medications
2007

1. As a matter of patient safety, APhA opposes the re-dispensing of a previously dispensed medication once it has been out of the control of a health care professional.

2. APhA supports a public awareness program to explain why the re-dispensing of a previously dispensed medication once it is out of the control of the healthcare professional is a public health safety concern.

(JAPhA NS45(5):580 September-October 2007)(Reviewed 2012)(Reviewed 2017)

Recycling of Pharmaceutical Packaging
2007,
1992

APhA supports aggressive research and development by pharmacists, pharmaceutical manufacturers, waste product managers, and other appropriate parties of mechanisms to increase recycling of non-hazardous, pharmaceutical, packaging materials, to reduce unnecessary waste in pharmaceutical product packaging, and to minimize the opportunity for counterfeiters to use discarded packaging.

(Am Pharm NS32(6):516 June 1992) (Reviewed 2004) (JAPhA NS45(5):580 September-October 2007)(Reviewed 2012)(Reviewed 2017)

Syringe Disposal
2001

APhA supports collaboration with other interested health care organizations, public and environmental health groups, waste management groups, syringe manufacturers, health insurers, and patient advocacy groups to develop and promote safer systems and procedures for the disposal of used needles and syringes by patients outside of health care facilities.

(JAPhA NS41(5): Suppl.1:S9 September/October 2001)(Reviewed 2007)(Reviewed 2012)(Reviewed 2017)

Proper Handling & Disposal of Hazardous Pharmaceuticals & Associated Supplies & Materials
1990

1. APhA supports the proper handling and disposal of hazardous, pharmaceutical products and associated supplies and materials by health professionals and by patients to whom such products, supplies, and materials are provided.

2. APhA supports involvement with representatives from other health professional organizations, industry, and government to develop recommendations for the proper handling and disposal of hazardous pharmaceuticals and associated supplies and materials.

3. APhA supports the development of educational programs for health professionals and patients on the proper handling and disposal of hazardous pharmaceuticals and associated supplies and materials.

(Am Pharm NS30(6):45 June 1990) (Reviewed 2004) (Reviewed 2007)(Reviewed 2012)(Reviewed 2017)

Drug Disposal Program Involvement
2017

APhA urges pharmacists to expand patient access to secure, convenient, and ecologically responsible drug disposal options, in accordance with the Secure and Responsible Drug Disposal Act of 2010, by implementing disposal programs they deem appropriate for their individual practice sites, patient care settings, and business models in an effort to reduce the amount of dispensed but unused prescription drug product available for diversion and misuse.

(JAPhA 57(4): 441 July/August 2017)

Ethical Issues
Pharmacist Participation in Executions
2015

The American Pharmacists Association discourages pharmacist participation in executions on the basis that such activities are fundamentally contrary to the role of pharmacists as providers of health care.

(JAPhA 55(4): 365 July/August 2015)

Potential Conflicts of Interest in Pharmacy Practice
2011

1. APhA reaffirms that as health care professionals, pharmacists are expected to act in the best interest of patients when making clinical recommendations.

2. APhA supports pharmacists using evidence-based practices to guide decisions that lead to the delivery of optimal patient care.

3. APhA supports pharmacist development, adoption, and use of policies and procedures to manage potential conflicts of interest in practice.

4. APhA should develop core principles that guide pharmacists in developing and using policies and procedures for identifying and managing potential conflicts of interest.

(JAPhA NS51(4) 482;July/August 2011)(Reviewed 2016)

Pharmacist Conscience Clause
2004,
1998

1. APhA recognizes the individual pharmacist's right to exercise conscientious refusal and supports the establishment of systems to ensure patient's access to legally prescribed therapy without compromising the pharmacist's right of conscientious refusal.

2. APhA shall appoint a council on an as needed basis to serve as a resource for the profession in addressing and understanding ethical issues.

(JAPhA 38(4):417 July/August 1998) (JAPhA NS44(5):551 September/October 2004) (Reviewed 2010) (Reviewed 2015)

Pharmacist Involvement in Execution by Lethal Injection
2004,
1985

1. APhA opposes the use of the term "drug" for chemicals when used in lethal injections.

2. APhA opposes laws and regulations which mandate or prohibit the participation of pharmacists in the process of execution by lethal injection.

(Am Pharm NS25(5):51 May 1985) (JAPhA NS44(5):551 September/October 2004) (Reviewed 2010) (Reviewed 2015)

Physician Assisted Suicide
2004,
1997

1. APhA supports informed decision-making based upon the professional judgment of pharmacists, rather than endorsing a particular moral stance on the issue of physician-assisted suicide.

2. APhA opposes laws and regulations which mandate or prohibit the participation of pharmacists in physician-assisted suicide.

(JAPhA NS37(4):459 July/August 1997) (JAPhA NS44(5):551 September/October 2004) (Reviewed 2010) (Reviewed 2015)

Code of Ethics for Pharmacists
1994

The Code of Ethics for Pharmacists was adopted by the membership of the American Pharmacist Association (then the American Pharmaceutical Association) October 27,1994.

Preamble

Pharmacists are health professionals who assist individuals in making the best use of medications. This Code, prepared and supported by pharmacists, is intended to state publicly the principles that form the fundamental basis of the roles and responsibilities of pharmacists. These principles, based on moral obligations and virtues, are established to guide pharmacists in relationships with patients, health professionals, and society.

I. A pharmacist respects the covenant relationship between the patient and pharmacist.

Considering the patient-pharmacist relationship as a covenant means that a pharmacist has moral obligations in response to the gift of trust received from society. In return for this gift, a pharmacist promises to help individuals achieve optimum benefit from their medications, to be committed to their welfare, and to maintain their trust.

II. A pharmacist promotes the good of every patient in a caring, compassionate, and confidential manner.

A pharmacist places concern for the well-being of the patient at the center of professional practice. In doing so, a pharmacist considers needs stated by the patient as well as those defined by health science. A pharmacist is dedicated to protecting the dignity of the patient. With a caring attitude and a compassionate spirit, a pharmacist focuses on serving the patient in a private and confidential manner.

III. A pharmacist respects the autonomy and dignity of each patient.

A pharmacist promotes the right of self-determination and recognizes individual self-worth by encouraging patients to participate in decisions about their health. A pharmacist communicates with patients in terms that are understandable. In all cases, a pharmacist respects personal and cultural differences among patients.

IV. A pharmacist acts with honesty and integrity in professional relationships.

A pharmacist has a duty to tell the truth and to act with conviction of conscience. A pharmacist avoids discriminatory practices, behavior or work conditions that impair professional judgment, and actions that compromise dedication to the best interests of patients.

V. A pharmacist maintains professional competence.

A pharmacist has a duty to maintain knowledge and abilities as new medications, devices, and technologies become available and as health information advances.

VI. A pharmacist respects the values and abilities of colleagues and other health professionals.

When appropriate, a pharmacist asks for the consultation of colleagues or other health professionals or refers the patient. A pharmacist acknowledges that colleagues and other health professionals may differ in the beliefs and values they apply to the care of the patient.

VII. A pharmacist serves individual, community, and societal needs.

The primary obligation of a pharmacist is to individual patients. However, the obligations of a pharmacist may at times extend beyond the individual to the community and society. In these situations, the pharmacist recognizes the responsibilities that accompany these obligations and acts accordingly.

VIII. A pharmacist seeks justice in the distribution of health resources.

When health resources are allocated, a pharmacist is fair and equitable, balancing the needs of patients and society.

(Adopted October 27, 1994)

Biotechnology
1991

APhA encourages the development of appropriate educational materials and guidelines to assist pharmacists in addressing the ethical issues associated with the appropriate use of biotechnology-based products.

(Am Pharm NS31(6):29 June 1991) (Reviewed 2004) (Reviewed 2007) (Reviewed 2010) (Reviewed 2015)(Reviewed 2016)(Reviewed 2017)

Ethics and Technology
1989

APhA, in recognition of pharmacists' professional and ethical responsibility to society, endorses the consideration of ethical principles in the design, conduct, and application of scientific research.

(Am Pharm NS29(1):76 January 1989) (Reviewed 2004) (Reviewed 2010) (Reviewed 2015)

Federal Programs And Policies
Pharmacists as Providers Under the Social Security Act
2016,
2011

APhA supports changes to the Social Security Act to allow pharmacists to be recognized and paid as providers of patient care services.

(JAPhA NS51(4) 482;July/August 2011)(JAPhA 56(4); 379 July/August 2016)

Integrated Nationwide Prescription Drug Monitoring Program
2015

1. APhA supports nationwide integration of prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMP) that incorporate federal, state, and territory databases for the purpose of providing health care professionals with accurate and real-time information to assist in clinical decision making when providing patient care services related to controlled substances.

2. APhA supports pharmacist involvement in the development of uniform standards for an integrated nationwide prescription drug monitoring program (PDMP) that includes the definition of authorized registered users, documentation, reporting requirements, system response time, security of information, minimum reporting data sets, and standard transaction format.

3. APhA supports mandatory prescription drug monitoring program (PDMP) enrollment by all health care providers, mandatory reporting by all those who dispense controlled substances, and appropriate system query by registrants during the patient care process related to controlled substances.

4. APhA advocates for the development of seamless workflow integration systems that would enable consistent use of a nationwide prescription drug monitoring program (PDMP) by registrants to facilitate prospective drug review as part of the patient care process related to controlled substances.

5. APhA advocates for continuous, sustainable federal funding sources for practitioners and system operators to utilize and maintain a standardized integrated and real-time nationwide prescription drug monitoring program (PDMP).

6. APhA supports the use of interprofessional advisory boards, that include pharmacists, to coordinate collaborative efforts for (a) compiling, analyzing, and using prescription drug monitoring program (PDMP) data trends related to controlled substance misuse, abuse, and/or fraud; (b) providing focused provider education and patient referral to treatment programs; and (c) supporting research activities on the impact of PDMPs.

7. APhA supports education and training for registrants about a nationwide prescription drug monitoring program (PDMP) to ensure proper data integrity, use, and confidentiality.

(JAPhA N55(4): 364 July/August 2015)

Ensuring Access to Pharmacists' Services
2013

1. Pharmacists are health care providers who must be recognized and compensated by payers for their professional services.

2. APhA actively supports the adoption of standardized processes for the provision, documentation, and claims submission of pharmacists' services.

3. APhA supports pharmacists' ability to bill payers and be compensated for their services consistent with the processes of other health care providers.

4. APhA supports recognition by payers that compensable pharmacist services range from generalized to focused activities intended to improve health outcomes based on individual patient needs.

5. APhA advocates for the development and implementation of a standardized process for verification of pharmacists' credentials as a means to foster compensation for pharmacist services and reduce administrative redundancy.

6. APhA advocates for pharmacists' access and contribution to clinical and claims data to support treatment, payment, and health care operations.

7. APhA actively supports the integration of pharmacists' service level and outcome data with other health care provider and claims data.

(JAPhA 53(4): 365 July/August 2013)

Pharmacists Providing Primary Care Services
2013

APhA advocates for the recognition and utilization of pharmacists as providers to address gaps in primary care.

(JAPhA 53(4): 365 July/August 2013)

Revisions to the Medication Classification System
2013

1. APhA supports the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) efforts to revise the drug classification paradigms for prescription and nonprescription medications to allow greater access to certain medications under conditions of safe use while maintaining patients' relationships with their pharmacists and other health care providers.

2. APhA supports the implementation or modification of state laws to facilitate pharmacists' implementation and provision of services related to a revised drug classification system.

3. APhA supports a patient care delivery model built on coordination and communication between pharmacists and other health care team members in the evaluation and management of care delivery.

4. APhA affirms that pharmacists are qualified to provide clinical interventions on medications under FDA's approved conditions of safe use.

5. APhA urges manufacturers, FDA, and other stakeholders to include pharmacists' input in the development and adoption of technology and standardized processes for services related to medications under FDA's defined conditions of safe use.

6. APhA supports the utilization of best practices, treatment algorithms, and clinical judgment of pharmacists and other health care providers to guide the evaluation and management of care delivery related to medications under FDA's approved conditions of safe use.

7. APhA encourages the inclusion of medications and services provided under FDA's defined conditions of safe use within health benefit coverage.

8. APhA supports compensation of pharmacists and other health care professionals for the provision of services related to FDA's defined conditions of safe use programs.

(JAPhA 53(4): 365 July/August 2013)

Controlled Substances Regulation and Patient Care
2012

1. APhA encourages the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) and other regulatory agencies to recognize pharmacists as partners that are committed to ensuring that patients in legitimate need of controlled substances are able to receive the medications.

2. APhA supports efforts to modernize and harmonize state and federal controlled substance laws.

3. APhA urges DEA and other regulatory agencies to balance patient care and regulatory issues when developing, interpreting, and enforcing laws and regulations.

4. APhA encourages DEA and other regulatory agencies to recognize the changes occurring in health care delivery and to establish a transparent and inclusive process for the timely updating of laws and regulations.

5. APhA encourages the U.S. Department of Justice to collaborate with professional organizations to identify and reduce: (a) the burdens on health care providers, (b) the cost of health care delivery, and (c) the barriers to patient care in the establishment and enforcement of controlled substance laws.

(JAPhA NS52(4) 457 July/August 2012)(Reviewed 2015)

Drug Supply Shortages and Patient Care
2012

1. APhA supports the immediate reporting by manufacturers to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of disruptions that may impact the market supply of medically necessary drug products to prevent, mitigate, or resolve drug shortage issues and supports the authority for FDA to impose penalties for failing to report.

2. APhA supports revising current laws and regulations that restrict the FDA's ability to provide timely communication to pharmacists, other health care providers, health systems, and professional associations regarding potential or real drug shortages.

3. APhA encourages the FDA, the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), and other stakeholders to collaborate in order to minimize barriers (e.g., aggregate production quotas, annual assessment of needs, unapproved drug initiatives) that contribute to or exacerbate drug shortages.

4. APhA should actively support legislation to hasten the development of an efficient regulatory process to approve therapeutically equivalent generic versions of biologic drug products.

5. APhA encourages pharmacists and other health care providers to assist in maintaining continuity of care during drug shortage situations by: (a) creating a practice site drug shortage plan as well as policies and procedures, (b) using reputable drug shortage management and information resources in decision making, (c) communicating with patients and coordinating with other health care providers, (d) avoiding excessive ordering and stockpiling of drugs, (e) acquiring drugs from reputable distributors, and (f) heightening their awareness of the potential for counterfeit or adulterated drugs entering the drug distribution system.

6. APhA encourages accrediting and regulatory agencies and the pharmaceutical science and manufacturing communities to evaluate policies/procedures related to the establishment and use of drug expiration dates and any impact those policies/procedures may have on drug shortages.

7. APhA encourages the active investigation and appropriate prosecution of entities that engage in price gouging and profiteering of medically necessary drug products in response to drug shortages.

(JAPhA NS52(4) 457 July/August 2012)(Reviewed 2017)

Discontinuation of the Sale of Tobacco Products in Pharmacies and Facilities that Include Pharmacies
2010

1. APhA urges pharmacies and facilities that include pharmacies to discontinue the sale of tobacco products.

2. APhA urges the federal government and state governments to limit participation in government-funded prescription programs to pharmacies that do not sell tobacco products.

3. APhA urges state boards of pharmacy to discontinue issuing and renewing licenses to pharmacies that sell tobacco products and to pharmacies that are in facilities that sell tobacco products.

4. APhA urges colleges of pharmacy to only use pharmacies that do not sell tobacco products as experience sites for their students.

5. APhA urges the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE) to adopt the position that college-administered pharmacy experience programs should only use pharmacies that do not sell tobacco products.

6. APhA urges pharmacists and student pharmacists who are seeking employment opportunities to first consider positions in pharmacies that do not sell tobacco products.

(JAPhA NS40(4):471 July/August 2010) (Reviewed 2015)

IRS Drug Deduction
2004,
1980

APhA supports amendment of the federal and state personal income tax laws to permit all personal expenditures for medicines and drugs to be totally deductible and exempt from any exclusionary limits.

(Am Pharm NS20(7):61 July 1980) (JAPhA NS44(5):551 September/October 2004) (Reviewed 2010) (Reviewed 2015)

Small Business Set-Asides
2004,
1994

APhA encourages all federal agencies (such as the Office of Personnel Management) to eliminate inconsistencies in federal contracts which in any way affect community pharmacies operating as small businesses.

(Am Pharm NS34(6):60 June 1994) (JAPhA NS44(5):551 September/October 2004) (Reviewed 2010) (Reviewed 2015)

Reduction of Federal Laws and Regulations (Paperwork Burden)
1985

APhA supports the reduction and simplification of laws, regulations, and record-keeping requirements which affect pharmacy practice and are not beneficial in protecting the public welfare.

(Am Pharm NS25(5):51 May 1985) (Reviewed 2001) (Reviewed 2004) (Reviewed 2010) (Reviewed 2015)

Biologic, Biosimilar, and Interchangeable Biologic Drug Products
2016

1. APhA urges the development of programs and policies that facilitate patient access to and affordability of biologic products.

2. APhA urges the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to expedite the development of standards and pathways that will evaluate the interchangeability of biologic products.

3. APhA recognizes the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Purple Book as an authoritative reference about biologic product interchangeability within the United States.

4. APhA opposes interchangeable biologic product substitution processes that require authorization, recordkeeping, or reporting beyond generic product substitution processes.

5. APhA encourages scientific justification for extrapolation of indications for biologic products to ensure patient safety and optimal therapeutic outcomes.

(JAPhA 56(4); 369 July/August 2016)

Freedom Of Access (freedom Of Choice)
Freedom to Choose
2004,
1990

1. APhA supports the patient's freedom to choose a provider of health care services and a provider's right to be offered participation in governmental or other third-party programs under equal terms and conditions.

2. APhA opposes government or other third-party programs that impose financial disincentives or penalties that inhibit the patient's freedom to choose a provider or health care services.

3. APhA supports that patients who must rely upon governmentally-financed or administered programs are entitled to the same high quality of pharmaceutical services as are provided to the population as a whole.

(Am Pharm NS30(6):45 June 1990) (JAPhA NS44(5):551 September/October 2004) (Reviewed 2010) (Reviewed 2015)

Healthcare Reform
Pharmacy Services Benefits in Health Care Reform
2016,
1994

APhA supports reform of the U.S. health care system and believes that any reform at the state or national level must provide for the following

1. Universal coverage for pharmacy service benefits that include both medications and pharmacists' services;

2. Specific provisions for the access to and payment for pharmacists' patient care services.

3. A single set of pricing rules, eliminating class-of-trade distinctions, for medications, medication delivery systems, and other equipment so that no payer, patient, or provider is disadvantaged by cost shifting;

4. The right for every American to choose his/her own provider of medications and pharmacists' services and for all pharmacists to participate in the health plans of their choice under equally applied terms and conditions;

5. Quality assurance mechanisms to improve and substantiate the effectiveness of medications and health services;

6. Information and administrative systems designed to enhance patient care, eliminate needless bureaucracy, and provide patients and providers price and quality information needed to make informed patient-care decisions;

7. Relief from antitrust laws and regulations to enable pharmacists to establish systems that balance provider needs relative to corporate and governmental interests;

8. Reform in the professional liability system, including caps on non-economic damages, attorneys' fees, and other measures;

9. Representation on the controlling board of each plan by an active health care practitioner from each discipline within the scope of the plan; and

10. Recognition of the pharmacist's role in delivering primary health care services.

(Am Pharm NS34(6):58 June 1994) (Reviewed 2004) (Reviewed 2010) (Reviewed 2011)(JAPhA 56(4); 379 July/August 2016)

Pharmacist's Role in Health Care Reform
2011

1. APhA affirms that pharmacists are the medication experts whose accessibility uniquely positions them to increase access to and improve quality of health care while decreasing overall costs.

2. APhA asserts that pharmacists must be recognized as the essential and accountable patient care provider on the health care team responsible for optimizing outcomes through medication therapy management (MTM).

3. APhA asserts the following: (a) Medication Therapy Management Services: Definition and Program Criteria is the standard definition of MTM that must be recognized by all stakeholders. (b) Medication Therapy Management in Pharmacy Practice: Core Elements of an MTM Service Model, as adopted by the profession of pharmacy, shall serve as the foundational MTM service model.

4. APhA asserts that pharmacists must be included as essential patient care provider and compensated as such in every health care model, including but not limited to, the medical home and accountable care organizations.

5. APhA actively promotes the outcomes-based studies, pilot programs, demonstration projects, and other activities that document and reconfirm pharmacists' impact on patient health and well-being, process of care delivery, and overall health care costs.

(JAPhA NS51(4) 482;July/August 2011)(Reviewed 2016)

The Scientific Implications of Health Care Reform
1994

1. APhA advocates that the public and private sectors maintain or increase their level of commitment to assure adequate resources for both basic and applied research within a reformed health care system.

2. APhA encourages the public and private research communities to preferentially expend resources for the discovery and development of new drugs and technologies that provide substantive, innovative therapeutic advances.

3. APhA advocates an increased emphasis on outcomes research in all areas of health services, including drug and disease-specific research encompassing clinical, economic, and humanistic dimensions (e.g., quality of life, patient satisfaction, ethics) and advocates for action related to conclusions for such research.

4. APhA encourages interdisciplinary collaboration in research efforts within and between the public and private research communities.

(Am Pharm NS34(6):55 June 1994)(Reviewed 2004)(Reviewed 2005)(Reviewed 2010)(Reviewed 2011)(Reviewed 2016)

Internet Pharmacy
Telemedicine/Telehealth/Telepharmacy
2005,
2004,
1999

1. APhA supports the pharmacist as the only appropriate provider of telepharmacy services, a component of telehealth, for which compensation should be provided. Telepharmacy is defined as the provision of pharmaceutical care to patients through the use of telecommunications and information technologies.

2. APhA shall assist pharmacists and student pharmacists in becoming knowledgeable about telepharmacy and telehealth.

3. APhA shall participate in the ongoing development of the telehealth infrastructure, including but not limited to regulations, standards development, security guidelines, information systems, and compensation.

4. APhA acknowledges that state boards of pharmacy are primarily responsible for the regulation of the practice of telepharmacy, encourages appropriate regulatory action that facilitates the practice of telepharmacy and maintains appropriate guidelines to protect the public health and patient confidentiality.

(JAPhA 39(4):447 July/August 1999) (JAPhA NS44(5):551 September/October 2004) (JAPhA NS45(5):559 September/October 2005)(Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2012)(Reviewed 2014)

Interprofessional Relations
Consumer
Consumer Organizations
2004,
1970

APhA, as well as state and local pharmacy organizations, shall continue to establish liaisons with the growing number of consumer groups, attend their meetings, and seek to be included on their programs.

(JAPhA NS10:350 June 1970) (JAPhA NS44(5):551 September/October 2004)(Reviewed 2010) (Reviewed 2015)

General Health Care Organizations
Other Health Care Professional Organizations
2004,
1975

APhA supports continuing joint action with other health care and professional organizations.

(JAPhA NS15:331-333 June 1975) (JAPhA NS44(5):551 September/October 2004) (Reviewed 2010)(Reviewed 2011)(Reviewed 2016)

The Joint Commission
1989

1. APhA supports increased interaction with The Joint Commission regarding accreditation standards and procedures pertaining to pharmacy and therapeutics.

2. APhA supports pharmacy representation on appropriate The Joint Commission professional and technical advisory committees.

(Am Pharm NS29(7)464 July 1989) (Reviewed 2004) (Reviewed 2009) (Modified 2010)(Reviewed 2011)(Reviewed 2016)

Mental Health
Mental Health Programs
2004,
1965

APhA supports pharmacists' participation in the development and implementation of all aspects of mental health programs so that the special needs and problems of the mentally ill can be effectively met.

(JAPhA NS5:274 May 1965) (JAPhA NS44(5):551 September/October 2004)(Reviewed 2010)(Reviewed 2011)

Physicians
Contemporary Pharmacy Practice
2017,
2012

1. APhA asserts that pharmacists should have the authority and support to practice to the full extent of their education, training, and experience in delivering patient care in all practice settings and activities.

2. APhA supports continuing efforts toward establishing a consistent and accurate perception of the contemporary role and practice of pharmacists by the general public, patients, and all persons and institutions engaged in health care policy, administration, payment, and delivery.

3. APhA supports continued collaboration with stakeholders to facilitate adoption of standardized practice acts, appropriate related laws, and regulations that reflect contemporary pharmacy practice.

4. APhA supports the establishment of multistate pharmacist licensure agreements to address the evolving needs of the pharmacy profession and pharmacist-provided patient care.

5. APhA urges the continued development of consensus documents, in collaboration with medical associations and other stakeholders, that recognize and support pharmacists' roles in patient care as health care providers.

6. APhA urges universal recognition of pharmacists as health care providers and compensation based on the level of patient care provided using standardized and future health care payment models.

(JAPhA NS52(4) 457 July/August 2012)(Reviewed 2016) (JAPhA 57(4): 441 July/August 2017)

Antimicrobial Stewardship
2015

1. APhA supports the role of pharmacists in antimicrobial stewardship in all practice settings.

2. APhA supports pharmacists working in collaboration with others to lead the development and implementation of antimicrobial stewardship programs and initiatives.

3. APhA supports pharmacists advising prescribers and educating patients on the appropriate use of antimicrobials.

(JAPhA N55(4): 365 July/August 2015)

Care Transitions
2014

1. APhA supports pharmacists leading medication management activities during care transitions to ensure safe and effective medication use.

2. APhA supports the integral role of pharmacists during care transitions for improving quality of patient-centered care and reducing overall costs to the health care system.

3. APhA strongly encourages collaboration and shared accountability among patients, family members, caregivers, pharmacists, and other health care providers during care transitions.

4. APhA supports the development and utilization of standardized processes that facilitate real-time, bidirectional communication of protected health information during care transitions.

5. APhA supports that documentation of health outcomes is an essential component of any care transition program to demonstrate value and ensure continuous quality improvement.

6. APhA supports financially viable payment models that recognize the value of pharmacists' services, including, but not limited to, those provided during care transitions.

7. APhA strongly urges the development and implementation of multidisciplinary, interprofessional, and team-based training for health care professionals and students to improve the quality and consistency of care transition services.

8. APhA urges the collaboration and partnership of community pharmacies with health care systems, institutions, and other entities involved in care transitions.

(JAPhA 54(4) 357 July/August 2014)

Pharmacists and Other Health Practitioners: Relationships and Compensation Among Health Care Practitioners
2011,
2004,
1963

APhA opposes any method which provides an inappropriate sharing of compensation between the prescriber and dispenser.

(JAPhA NS3:298 June 1963) (JAPhA NS44(5):551 September/October 2004) (Reviewed 2010) (JAPhA NS51(4) 484;July/August 2011)(Reviewed 2016)

Guidelines for Physician Ownership
2004,
1965

APhA supports efforts to develop guidelines on physician ownership of pharmacies due to the inherent conflict of interest.

(JAPhA NS5:276 May 1965) (JAPhA NS44(5):551 September/October 2004) (Reviewed 2010) (Reviewed 2011)(Reviewed 2016

Collaborative Practice Agreements
1997

1. APhA supports the establishment of collaborative practice agreements between pharmacists and other health care professionals designed to optimize patient care outcomes.

2. APhA shall promote the establishment and dissemination of guidelines and information to pharmacists and other health care professionals to facilitate the development of collaborative practice agreements.

(JAPhA NS37(4):459 July/August 1997) (Reviewed 2003)(Reviewed 2007)(Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2011)(Reviewed 2012)(Reviewed 2017)

Public Health
The Role and Contributions of the Pharmacist in Public Health
2011

In concert with the American Public Health Association's (APHA) 2006 policy statement, "The Role of the Pharmacist in Public Health," APhA encourages collaboration with APHA and other public health organizations to increase pharmacists' participation in initiatives designed to meet global, national, regional, state, local, and community health goals.

(JAPhA NS51(4) 482;July/August 2011)(Reviewed 2012)(Reviewed 2016)

Community Health Councils
2004,
1964

APhA encourages pharmacists' active participation in health care organizations within their communities to assist in the public health efforts of community health and foster better community understanding of the profession of pharmacy.

(JAPhA NS4:428 August 1964) (JAPhA NS44(5):551 September/October 2004) (Reviewed 2010) (Reviewed 2015)

State and Local Boards of Health
1967

Because of the broad implications of the pharmacist's role in public health, the committee recommends that pharmacists and pharmacy associations seek to have the state laws amended to require that a pharmacist serve on the state and local boards of health. One part of this effort should be an increased interest on the part of the pharmacist in his local health boards and commissions.

(JAPhA NS7:324 June 1967) (Reviewed 2002) (Reviewed 2007)(Reviewed 2012)(Reviewed 2017)

Veterinary Medicine
Pharmacists' Relationship to Veterinarians
2004,
1988

APhA encourages pharmacists and student pharmacists to become more knowledgeable about veterinary drugs and their usage.

(Am Pharm NS28(6):395 June 1988) (JAPhA NS44(5):551 September/October 2004) (Reviewed 2010) (Reviewed 2015)

Labeling
Indication on Prescription Lables and Medication Safety
2017

APhA supports pharmacists' authority to include a medication's purpose on prescription labels, on the basis of professional knowledge, judgment, and patient preference, using vocabulary that is appropriate for their unique practice sites and that addresses the needs of their specific patient populations.

(JAPhA 57(4): 442 July/August 2017)

Labeling and Measurement of Oral Liquid Medications
2016

1. APhA supports the use of the milliliter (mL) as the standard unit of measure for oral liquid medications.

2. APhA encourages the mandatory use of leading zeros before the decimal point for amounts of less than one on prescription-container labels for oral liquid medications.

3. APhA discourages the use of trailing zeros after the decimal point for amounts greater than one on prescription-container labels for oral liquid medications.

4. APhA supports access to and universal availability of dosing devices with numeric graduations that correspond to the unit of measure that is on the container's label for oral liquid medications.

(JAPhA 56(4); 369 July/August 2016)

Expiration Dating and Drug Storage Instructions
Drug Supply Shortages and Patient Care
2012

1. APhA supports the immediate reporting by manufacturers to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of disruptions that may impact the market supply of medically necessary drug products to prevent, mitigate, or resolve drug shortage issues and supports the authority for FDA to impose penalties for failing to report.

2. APhA supports revising current laws and regulations that restrict the FDA's ability to provide timely communication to pharmacists, other health care providers, health systems, and professional associations regarding potential or real drug shortages.

3. APhA encourages the FDA, the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), and other stakeholders to collaborate in order to minimize barriers (e.g., aggregate production quotas, annual assessment of needs, unapproved drug initiatives) that contribute to or exacerbate drug shortages.

4. APhA should actively support legislation to hasten the development of an efficient regulatory process to approve therapeutically equivalent generic versions of biologic drug products.

5. APhA encourages pharmacists and other health care providers to assist in maintaining continuity of care during drug shortage situations by: (a) creating a practice site drug shortage plan as well as policies and procedures, (b) using reputable drug shortage management and information resources in decision making, (c) communicating with patients and coordinating with other health care providers, (d) avoiding excessive ordering and stockpiling of drugs, (e) acquiring drugs from reputable distributors, and (f) heightening their awareness of the potential for counterfeit or adulterated drugs entering the drug distribution system.

6. APhA encourages accrediting and regulatory agencies and the pharmaceutical science and manufacturing communities to evaluate policies/procedures related to the establishment and use of drug expiration dates and any impact those policies/procedures may have on drug shortages.

7. APhA encourages the active investigation and appropriate prosecution of entities that engage in price gouging and profiteering of medically necessary drug products in response to drug shortages.

(JAPhA NS52(4) 457 July/August 2012)(Reviewed 2017)

"Beyond-use Dating" by Pharmacists
2004,
1989

APhA recommends that all pharmacists place a "beyond-use-date" on the labeling of all medications dispensed to patients as recommended by the United States Pharmacopeia-National Formulary or manufacturer.

(Am Pharm NS29(7):465 July 1989) (JAPhA NS44(5):551 September/October 2004) (Reviewed 2007)(Reviewed 2012)(Reviewed 2017)

Expiration Dating
2004,
1971

APhA supports manufacturers of prescription and non-prescription drugs including on the package label adequate information regarding storage requirements and a date after which the product should not be used.

(JAPhA NS11:271 May 1971) (JAPhA NS44(5):551 September/October 2004) (Reviewed 2007)(Reviewed 2012)(Reviewed 2017)

Identification of Drug and Manufacturer
Medication Verification
2012

APhA encourages including a description of a medication's appearance on the pharmacy label or receipt as a means of reducing medication errors and distribution of counterfeit medications.

(JAPhA NS52(4) 458 July/August 2012)(Reviewed 2017)

Identification of Prescription Drug Products
2004,
1980

APhA supports a federal legislative or regulatory requirement that a name, trademark, number, or code be included on the drug dosage form.

(Am Pharm NS20(7):62 July 1980) (JAPhA NS44(5):551 September/October 2004) (Reviewed 2010) (Reviewed 2015)

Manufacturer's Name Included on Labels
2004,
1969

APhA supports legislation that would require the name of the actual manufacturer of the dosage forms on all drug products.

(JAPhA NS9:361 July 1969) (JAPhA NS44(5):551 September/October 2004) (Reviewed 2010) (Reviewed 2015)

National Drug Code: Uniform Identification Numbers
2004,
1975

APhA supports modification of the National Drug Code system to provide uniform identification numbers for the same drug entity, dosage form, strength, and quantity in addition to a manufacturer's identification number.

(JAPhA NS15:332 June 1975) (JAPhA NS44(5):551 September/October 2004) (Reviewed 2010) (Reviewed 2015)

Standardized Manufacturers' Control Numbers
2004,
1968

1. APhA encourages manufacturers to adopt a standardized system of control numbers which meets the following guidelines:

(a) The number should be legible.

(b) The numbers should be placed in a standard position on the label.

(c) The date of manufacture should be obvious from the control number.

(d) The number should be on both the carton and the original container

(JAPhA NS8:380 July 1968) (JAPhA NS44(5):551 September/October 2004) (Reviewed 2010) (Reviewed 2015)

Ingredients
Disclosure of Ingredients in Drug Products
2004,
1970

APhA supports legislation or regulation to require a full disclosure of therapeutically inactive, as well as active ingredients of all drug products.

(JAPhA NS10:357 June 1970) (JAPhA NS44(5):551 September/October 2004) (Reviewed 2010) (Reviewed 2015)

Regulation of Dietary Supplements
2000

1. APhA shall work with Congress to modify the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act or enact other legislation to require that dietary supplement manufacturers provide evidence of efficacy and safety for all products, including products currently in the marketplace.

2. APhA supports the establishment and implementation of clear and effective enforcement policies to remove promptly unsafe or ineffective dietary supplement products from the marketplace.

3. APhA shall work with the FDA to improve dietary supplement product labeling to ensure full disclosure of all product components and their source with associated strengths and recommendations for use in specific patient populations.

4. APhA supports the development and enforcement of dietary supplement good manufacturing practices (GMPs) and compliance with USP/NF standards to assure quality, safe, contaminant-free products.

5. APhA encourages health care professionals, manufacturers, and consumers to report adverse health events associated with dietary supplements. APhA encourages the FDA to create a database with this information and make it available to all interested parties.

(JAPhA NS1(9):40 September/October 2000)(Reviewed 2005)(Reviewed 2007)(Reviewed 2012)(Reviewed 2017)

Licensure, Registration, And Regulation
Privacy of Pharmacists' Personal Information
2007

1. APhA supports protecting pharmacist, student pharmacist, and pharmacy technician personal information (e.g. home address, telephone, and personal email address).

2. APhA opposes legislative or regulatory requirements that mandate the publication of pharmacist, student pharmacist and pharmacy technician personal information (e.g. home address, telephone, and personal email address).

3. APhA encourages state boards of pharmacy to remove from their Web sites personal addresses, phone numbers, email, and other non-business contact information of pharmacists, student pharmacists, and pharmacy technicians.

(JAPhA NS45(5):580 September-October 2007)(Reviewed 2012)(Reviewed 2017)

Composition of State Boards of Pharmacy
Boards of Pharmacy: Consumer Representation
1972

APhA encourages state pharmaceutical associations to actively seek appointment of lay representation of the public to their respective boards of pharmacy and other health profession licensing and regulatory agencies.

(JAPhA NS12:281 June 1972) (Reviewed 2004) (Reviewed 2010) (Reviewed 2015)

Licensure and Registration of Personnel
Pharmacy Technician Education, Training, and Development
2017

1. APhA supports the following minimum requirements for all new pharmacy technicians: (a) Successful completion of an accredited or state-approved education and training program (b) Certification by the Pharmacy Technician Certification Board (PTCB).

2. APhA supports state board of pharmacy regulations that require pharmacy technicians to meet minimum standards of education, training, certification, and recertification. APhA encourages state boards of pharmacy to develop a phase-in process for current pharmacy technicians. APhA also encourages boards of pharmacy to delineate between pharmacy technicians and student pharmacists for the purposes of education, training, certification, and recertification.

3. APhA recognizes the important contribution and role of pharmacy technicians in assisting pharmacists and student pharmacists with the delivery of patient care.

4. APhA supports the development of resources and programs that promote the recruitment and retention of qualified pharmacy technicians.

5. APhA supports the development of continuing pharmacy education programs that enhance and support the continued professional development of pharmacy technicians.

6. APhA encourages the development of compensation models for pharmacy technicians that promote sustainable career opportunities

(JAPhA 57(4): 442 July/August 2017)

Pharmacy Technician Education and Training
2008

1. APhA reaffirms the 2005/2001/1996 Control of Distribution System policy, which states that APhA supports pharmacists' authority to control the distribution process and personnel involved and the responsibility for all completed medication orders, regardless of practice setting.

2. APhA supports nationally recognized standards and guidelines for the accreditation of pharmacy technician education and training programs.

3. APhA supports the continued growth of accredited education and training programs that develop qualified pharmacy technicians who will support pharmacists in ensuring patient safety and enhancing patient care.

4. APhA supports the following minimum requirements for all new pharmacy technicians by the year 2015: (a) successful completion of an accredited education and training program and (b) certification by the Pharmacy Technician Certification Board (PTCB).

5. APhA supports state board of pharmacy regulations that require pharmacy technicians to meet minimum standards of education, training, and certification. APhA also encourages state boards of pharmacy to develop a phase-in process for current pharmacy technicians.

(JAPhA NS48(4):470 July/August 2008)(Reviewed 2013)

Technician Licensure and Registration
2004,
1996

1. APhA recognizes the following definitions with regards to technician licensure and registration:

(a) Licensure: The process by which an agency of government grants permission an individual to engage in a given occupation upon finding that the applicant has attained the minimal degree of competency necessary to ensure that the public health, safety, and welfare will be reasonably well protected. Within pharmacy, a pharmacist is licensed by a State Board of Pharmacy.

(b) Registration: The process of making a list or being enrolled in an existing list.

(JAPhA NS36(6):396 June 1996)(Reviewed 2001)(JAPhA NS44(5):551 September/October 2004)(Reviewed 2008) (Reviewed 2010) (Reviewed 2015)

Continued Competence Assessment Examination
2003,
1997

1. APhA should develop, in cooperation with other state and national associations, a voluntary process for self-assessing pharmaceutical care competence.

2. APhA opposes regulatory bodies utilizing continuing competence examinations as a requirement for renewal of a pharmacist's license.

3. APhA supports programs that measure and evaluate pharmacist competence based on established valid standards.

(JAPhA NS37(4): 460 July/August 1997) (JAPhA NS43(5):Suppl. 1:S58 September/October 2003)(Reviewed 2005) (Reviewed 2006)(Reviewed 2008)(Reviewed 2011)(Reviewed 2016)

Reciprocity
1980

APhA supports systems of reciprocity which recognize a current license issued by any state and eliminate the requirement for pharmacists to maintain active practice licenses in the states of initial licensure.

(Am Pharm NS20(7):76 July 1980) (Reviewed 2004) (Reviewed 2010) (Reviewed 2015)

Licensure, Registration and Inspection of Facilities
Controlled Substances Regulation and Patient Care
2012

1. APhA encourages the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) and other regulatory agencies to recognize pharmacists as partners that are committed to ensuring that patients in legitimate need of controlled substances are able to receive the medications.

2. APhA supports efforts to modernize and harmonize state and federal controlled substance laws.

3. APhA urges DEA and other regulatory agencies to balance patient care and regulatory issues when developing, interpreting, and enforcing laws and regulations.

4. APhA encourages DEA and other regulatory agencies to recognize the changes occurring in health care delivery and to establish a transparent and inclusive process for the timely updating of laws and regulations.

5. APhA encourages the U.S. Department of Justice to collaborate with professional organizations to identify and reduce: (a) the burdens on health care providers, (b) the cost of health care delivery, and (c) the barriers to patient care in the establishment and enforcement of controlled substance laws.

(JAPhA NS52(4) 457 July/August 2012)(Reviewed 2015)

Registration of Facilities
2012

APhA supports state and federal laws and regulations that require registration with the state boards of pharmacy of all facilities involved in the storage, wholesale distribution, and issuance of legend drugs to patients, provided that such registration does not restrict the pharmacists from providing professional services independent of a facility.

(JAPhA NS52(4) 458 July/August 2012)(Reviewed 2017)

Pharmacy Practice Accreditation
2011

1. APhA should lead the creation of consensus-based, pharmacy profession-developed accreditation standards and methods of evaluation to optimize the quality and safety of patient care and promote best practices.

2. APhA urges that accrediting bodies use profession-developed standards for pharmacy.

3. APhA supports only those pharmacy accreditation processes that are voluntary, transparent, consensus-based, reasonably executable, and affordable, while avoiding duplication and barriers to patient care.

4. APhA opposes mandatory pharmacy accreditation.

5. APhA shall assume the leadership role among stakeholders on the design and implementation of an appropriate process for any new pharmacy accrediting program.

6. APhA supports the appropriate use of data gathered from pharmacy practice monitoring processes to facilitate the advancement of pharmacy practice and quality of patient care.

(JAPhA NS51(4) 482;July/August 2011)(Reviewed 2016)

Discontinuation of the Sale of Tobacco Products in Pharmacies and Facilities that Include Pharmacies
2010

1. APhA urges pharmacies and facilities that include pharmacies to discontinue the sale of tobacco products.

2. APhA urges the federal government and state governments to limit participation in government-funded prescription programs to pharmacies that do not sell tobacco products.

3. APhA urges state boards of pharmacy to discontinue issuing and renewing licenses to pharmacies that sell tobacco products and to pharmacies that are in facilities that sell tobacco products.

4. APhA urges colleges of pharmacy to only use pharmacies that do not sell tobacco products as experience sites for their students.

5. APhA urges the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE) to adopt the position that college-administered pharmacy experience programs should only use pharmacies that do not sell tobacco products.

6. APhA urges pharmacists and student pharmacists who are seeking employment opportunities to first consider positions in pharmacies that do not sell tobacco products.

(JAPhA NS40(4):471 July/August 2010) (Reviewed 2015)

Pharmacy Compounding Accreditation
2008

1. APhA reaffirms the 1992 Compounding Activities of Pharmacists policy, which states that APhA affirms that compounding pursuant to or in anticipation of a prescription or diagnostic preparation order is an essential part of health care that is the prerogative of the pharmacist.

2. APhA supports compounding as defined by the Pharmacy Compounding Accreditation Board (PCAB) as a means to meet patient drug therapy needs.

3. APhA opposes compounding when identical medications are commercially and readily available in strength and dosage form to meet patient drug therapy needs.

4. APhA asserts that compounding is subject to regulations and oversight from state boards of pharmacy. APhA urges state boards of pharmacy to identify and take appropriate action against entities who are illegally manufacturing medications under the guise of compounding.

5. APhA supports accreditation of compounding sites by PCAB to ensure patient safety. APhA encourages state boards of pharmacy to recommend accreditation for those sites that engage in more than basic non sterile compounding as defined by PCAB.

6. APhA supports the development of education, training and recognition programs that enhance pharmacist and student pharmacist knowledge and skills to engage in compounding beyond basic, non sterile preparations as defined by PCAB.

7. APhA encourages the exploration of a specialty certification in the area of compounding through the Board of Pharmaceutical Specialties (BPS).

(JAPhA NS48(4):470 July/August 2008) (Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2011)(Reviewed 2016)

Regulatory Compliance/Regulatory Burden
2008,
2001

APhA supports measures that protect the patient, public, and employees from pharmacy conditions that pose a threat to health.

(JAPhA NS41(5)Suppl.1:S9 September/October 2001)(JAPhA NS48(4):470 July/August 2008)(Reviewed 2013)

Licensing Boards: Inspection of Pharmacies
2004,
1977

1. APhA supports that all non-criminal inspections of pharmacies shall be under the direct control of each state board of pharmacy.

2. APhA recommends that state boards of pharmacy require that all pharmacy inspectors be licensed pharmacists who regularly update their knowledge of pharmacy practice.

3. APhA encourages NABP to develop and maintain uniform guidelines and standards for non-criminal inspections of pharmacies.

(JAPhA NS17:456 July 1977) (JAPhA NS44(5):551 September/October 2004) (Reviewed 2009) (Reviewed 2010) (Reviewed 2015)

Licensure/Registration of Drug Manufacturers
2004,
1970

APhA supports the requirements that all drug manufacturers must obtain a federal license or registration, conditioned upon an inspection of the manufacturer's facilities, before manufacturing is begun.

(JAPhA NS10:347 June 1970)(JAPhA NS44(5):551 September/October 2004)(Reviewed 2006)(Reviewed 2010) (Reviewed 2015)

State Boards of Pharmacy/Inspections
2004,
1978

1. APhA supports inspections of pharmacies and peer review of pharmacists that promote high-quality pharmaceutical service and thereby serve to improve public health.

2. APhA opposes the use of criminal investigative techniques during routine noncriminal pharmacy inspections.

3. APhA supports regulation and inspection by boards of pharmacy of all facilities within a state at which drugs are dispensed, stored, or offered for sale in the same manner as pharmacies.

(Am Pharm NS18(8):36 July 1978) (JAPhA NS44(5):551 September/October 2004) (Reviewed 2008)(Reviewed 2013)

Registration of Facilities Involved in the Storage and Issuing of Legend Drugs to Patients
1985

APhA supports enactment of state and federal laws and regulations that would require registration with the state boards of pharmacy of all facilities involved in the storage and issuing of legend drugs to patients, provided that such registration does not restrict the pharmacist from providing professional services independent of a facility.

(Am Pharm NS25(5):51 May 1985) (Reviewed 2004)(Reviewed 2010)(Reviewed 2012)(Reviewed 2013)

Regulation of Mobile Facilities
1985

APhA supports enactment of state and federal laws and regulations which would govern the dispensing and issuing of legend drugs from mobile facilities.

(Am Pharm NS25(5):51 May 1985) (Reviewed 2004) (Reviewed 2010) (Reviewed 2015)

Pharmacy Law and Practice Acts
Contemporary Pharmacy Practice
2017,
2012

1. APhA asserts that pharmacists should have the authority and support to practice to the full extent of their education, training, and experience in delivering patient care in all practice settings and activities.

2. APhA supports continuing efforts toward establishing a consistent and accurate perception of the contemporary role and practice of pharmacists by the general public, patients, and all persons and institutions engaged in health care policy, administration, payment, and delivery.

3. APhA supports continued collaboration with stakeholders to facilitate adoption of standardized practice acts, appropriate related laws, and regulations that reflect contemporary pharmacy practice.

4. APhA supports the establishment of multistate pharmacist licensure agreements to address the evolving needs of the pharmacy profession and pharmacist-provided patient care.

5. APhA urges the continued development of consensus documents, in collaboration with medical associations and other stakeholders, that recognize and support pharmacists' roles in patient care as health care providers.

6. APhA urges universal recognition of pharmacists as health care providers and compensation based on the level of patient care provided using standardized and future health care payment models.

(JAPhA NS52(4) 457 July/August 2012)(Reviewed 2016) (JAPhA 57(4): 441 July/August 2017)

Controlled Substances Regulation and Patient Care
2012

1. APhA encourages the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) and other regulatory agencies to recognize pharmacists as partners that are committed to ensuring that patients in legitimate need of controlled substances are able to receive the medications.

2. APhA supports efforts to modernize and harmonize state and federal controlled substance laws.

3. APhA urges DEA and other regulatory agencies to balance patient care and regulatory issues when developing, interpreting, and enforcing laws and regulations.

4. APhA encourages DEA and other regulatory agencies to recognize the changes occurring in health care delivery and to establish a transparent and inclusive process for the timely updating of laws and regulations.

5. APhA encourages the U.S. Department of Justice to collaborate with professional organizations to identify and reduce: (a) the burdens on health care providers, (b) the cost of health care delivery, and (c) the barriers to patient care in the establishment and enforcement of controlled substance laws.

(JAPhA NS52(4) 457 July/August 2012)(Reviewed 2015)

National Framework for Practice Regulation
2002

1. APhA supports state-based systems to regulate pharmacy and pharmacist practice.

2. APhA encourages states to provide pharmacy boards with the following: (a) adequate resources; (b) independent authority, including autonomy from other agencies; and (c) assistance in meeting their mission to protect the public health and safety of consumers.

3. APhA supports efforts of state boards of pharmacy to adopt uniform standards and definitions of pharmacy and pharmacist practice.

4. APhA encourages state boards of pharmacy to recognize and facilitate innovations in pharmacy and pharmacist practice.

(JAPhA NS2(5):Suppl. 1: 563 September/October 2002) (Reviewed 2007)(Reviewed 2008)(Reviewed 2013)(Reviewed 2015)

Professional Practice Regulation
2002

1. APhA encourages the revision of pharmacy laws to assign the responsibility and accountability to the pharmacy license holder for the operations of the pharmacy, including but not limited to quality improvement, staffing, inventory, and financial activities. Further, APhA supports the responsibility and accountability of the pharmacist for dispensing of the pharmaceutical product and for the provision of pharmaceutical care services.

2. APhA encourages the pharmacy license holder to provide adequate resources and support for pharmacists to meet their professional responsibilities, and for pharmacists to utilize the resources and support appropriately and efficiently. APhA encourages state boards of pharmacy to hold pharmacy license holders accountable for failure to provide such adequate resources and support.

(JAPhA NS42(5):Suppl. 1:S60 September/October 2002) (Reviewed 2007) (Reviewed 2008)(Reviewed 2011)(Reviewed 2016)

Updating of State Pharmacy Practice Acts
1991,
2004

1. APhA recommends and supports enactment of state pharmacy practice act revisions enabling pharmacists to achieve the full scope of APhA's Mission Statement for the Pharmacy Profession.

2. APhA supports standards of pharmacy practice reflecting the APhA Mission Statement for the Pharmacy Profession.

(Am Pharm NS31(6):28 June 1991) (JAPhA NS44(5):(551 September/October 2004) (Reviewed 2007)(Reviewed 2012)(Reviewed 2017)

Mail Service Prescriptions
Patient Care and Medication Distribution System
2012,
1992

APhA encourages those responsible for practice environments without direct patient/pharmacist contact to use methods to enhance communication, face-to-face interaction, and patient care.

(Am Pharm NS32(6):515 June 1992) (Reviewed 2001) (Reviewed 2007) (JAPhA NS52(4) 459 July/August 2012)(Reviewed 2017)

Medical And Pharmaceutical Equipment And Products
Support for Clinically-Validated Blood Pressure Measurement Devices
2017

1. APhA supports the use of manual and automated blood pressure measurement devices that are clinically validated initially and then undergo routine calibration to ensure accurate results.

2. APhA supports regulations and peer-reviewed clinical validation testing for automated blood pressure measurement devices.

3. APhA promotes public awareness of accuracy of automated blood pressure measurement devices.

(JAPhA 57(4): 442 July/August 2017)

Re-use of Devices Intended for "Single-Use"
2013,
2008

APhA opposes the reuse of devices intended for "single use" in the screening and management of patients consistent with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) guidelines.

(JAPhA NS48(4):471 July/August 2008) (JAPhA 53(4):366 July/August 2013)

Sale of Home-use Diagnostic and Monitoring Products
2013,
2008,
1987

1. APhA supports the need to protect the health of the American people through proper instruction in the safe and effective use of the more complex home-use diagnostic and monitoring products.

2. APhA supports the promotion of the pharmacist as a widely available and qualified health care professional to advise patients in the use of home-use diagnostic and monitoring products.

(Am Pharm NS27(6):424 June 1987) (Reviewed 2003)(JAPhA NS48(4):470 July/August 20088) (JAPhA 53(4):366 July/August 2013)(Reviewed 2016)(Reviewed 2017)

Pharmacist Counseling on Administration Devices
2001

APhA encourages patient and caregiver education by a pharmacist on the appropriate use of drug administration devices.

(JAPhA NS41(5):Suppl.1:S9 September/October 2001)(Reviewed 2007)(Reviewed 2012)(Reviewed 2017)

Syringe Disposal
2001

APhA supports collaboration with other interested health care organizations, public and environmental health groups, waste management groups, syringe manufacturers, health insurers, and patient advocacy groups to develop and promote safer systems and procedures for the disposal of used needles and syringes by patients outside of health care facilities.

(JAPhA NS41(5): Suppl.1:S9 September/October 2001)(Reviewed 2007)(Reviewed 2012)(Reviewed 2017)

Sale of Sterile Syringes
1999

APhA encourages state legislatures and boards of pharmacy to revise laws and regulations to permit the unrestricted sale or distribution of sterile syringes and needles by or with the knowledge of a pharmacist in an effort to decrease the transmission of blood-borne diseases.

(JAPhA 39(4): 447 July/August 1999)(Reviewed 2003)(Reviewed 2006)(Reviewed 2008)(Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2014)

Labeling and Measurement of Oral Liquid Medications
2016

1. APhA supports the use of the milliliter (mL) as the standard unit of measure for oral liquid medications.

2. APhA encourages the mandatory use of leading zeros before the decimal point for amounts of less than one on prescription-container labels for oral liquid medications.

3. APhA discourages the use of trailing zeros after the decimal point for amounts greater than one on prescription-container labels for oral liquid medications.

4. APhA supports access to and universal availability of dosing devices with numeric graduations that correspond to the unit of measure that is on the container's label for oral liquid medications.

(JAPhA 56(4); 369 July/August 2016)

Point-of-Care Testing
2016

1. APhA recognizes the value of pharmacist-provided, point-of-care testing and related clinical services, and it promotes the provision of those tests and services in accordance with the Joint Commission of Pharmacy Practitioners Pharmacists' Patient Care Process.

2. APhA advocates for laws, regulations, and policies that enable pharmacist-provided, point-of-care testing and related clinical services that are consistent with the pharmacists' role in team-based care.

3. APhA opposes laws, regulations, and policies that create barriers to the tests that have been waived by the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) and that are administered and interpreted by pharmacists.

4. APhA encourages use of educational programming and resources to facilitate practice implementation of pharmacist-provided, point-of-care testing and related clinical services.

5. APhA supports patients taking active roles in the management of their health, including their ability to request and obtain pharmacist-provided, point-of-care tests and related clinical services.

6. APhA advocates for access to, coverage of, and payment for both pharmacist-provided, point-of-care tests and any related clinical services.

(JPhA 56(4); 369 July/August 2016)

Minorities In Pharmacy
Equal Rights and Opportunities for Pharmacy Personnel
2017,
2012,
1989

APhA reaffirms its unequivocal support of equal opportunities for employment and advancement, compensation, and organizational leadership positions. APhA opposes discrimination based on sex, gender identity or expression of race, color, religion, national origin, age, disability, genetic information, sexual orientation, or any other category protected by federal or state law.

(Am Pharm NS 29(7):464 July 1989) (Reviewed 2001) (Reviewed 2007)(JAPhA NS52(4) 459 July/August 2012)(JAPhA 57(4): 441 July/August 2017)

Recruitment of a Diverse Population into Pharmacy
2012,
1991

1. APhA supports a vigorous long term program for the recruitment of a diverse population of student pharmacists into the pharmacy profession.

2. APhA encourages the development and regular updating of comprehensive recruitment materials, directed toward diversity and inclusion, that address such issues as pharmacy career opportunities, financial aid, and educational prerequisites, and that highlight professional diverse role models.

3. APhA encourages national, state, and local association; schools; students; and industry to create a network of pharmacists who would serve as role models for a diverse population of student pharmacists.

4. APhA supports the development of guidelines that assist schools of pharmacy in implementing diversity and inclusion initiatives into student pharmacist recruitment programs.

(Am Pharm NS31(6):28 June 1991) (Reviewed 2001) (Reviewed 2007) (JAPhA NS52(4) 459 July/August 2012)(Reviewed 2017)

Consideration of the Equal Rights Amendment
1979

APhA supports efforts to assure equal rights of all persons.

(AmPharm NS19(7):60 June 1979) (Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2014)

Miscellaneous Policies
Center for Human Organ Acquisition
2004,
1984

1. APhA supports activities that would increase voluntary human organ donations.

2. APhA encourages all pharmacists to consider becoming organ donors themselves, and to inform and encourage their patients to participate in organ donor programs.

3. APhA strongly urges all pharmacists, especially those in emergency room and intensive/critical care settings, to sensitize the other health care team members to the basic need for asking if a patient is an organ donor as part of the admission.

(Am Pharm NS24(7):61 July 1984) (JAPhA NS44(5):551 September/October 2004) (Reviewed 2010) (Reviewed 2015)

Rationing of Expensive Health Care Services
2004,
1986

1. APhA supports programs that will actively market the cost-effective benefits of comprehensive pharmacy services to patients and payers.

2. APhA supports the utilization of management tools to assist the pharmacist in maximizing available revenues in an environment of expensive and/or scarce health services and funding.

(Am Pharm NS26(6):420 June 1986) (JAPhA NS44(5):551 September/October 2004) (Reviewed 2010) (Reviewed 2015)

Child Abuse Reporting
1979

APhA urges pharmacists to report all suspected cases of child abuse to proper authorities.

(Am Pharm NS19(7):69 June 1979) (Reviewed 2006)(Reviewed 2011)(Reviewed 2016)

New Drug Applications And Investigational New Drugs
Investigational New Drugs
Pharmacogenomics/Personalized Medicine
2010

1. APhA supports evidence-based personalized medicine, defined as the use of a person's clinical, genetic, genomic, and environmental information to select a medication or its dose, to choose a therapy, or to recommend preventive measures, as a means to improve patient safety and optimize health outcomes.

2. APhA promotes pharmacists as health care providers in the collection, use, interpretation, and application of pharmacogenomic data to optimize health outcomes.

3. APhA supports the development and implementation of programs, tools, and clinical guidelines that facilitate the translation and application of pharmacogenomic data into clinical practice.

4. APhA supports the inclusion of pharmacogenomic analysis in the drug development/approval and postmarketing surveillance processes.

(JAPhA NS50(4):471 July/August 2010) (Reviewed 2015)

Therapeutic Orphans
2004,
1980

APhA supports the adoption of policies in the new drug application (NDA) process that, beyond the pre-market, clinical testing, would result in post-marketing, clinical testing of the drug for important new clinical uses or population groups. Post-marketing studies may also be preferable for other indications where circumstances may require a lengthy gathering of data due to limitations in numbers of clinical cases, and for which initial marketing approval for the major indication(s) or population groups should not be delayed.

(Am Pharm NS20(7):73 July 1980) (JAPhA NS44(5):551 September/October 2004) (Reviewed 2010) (Reviewed 2015)

Reimbursement of Pharmacy Services Associated with Drugs Undergoing Assessment
1990

1. APhA recognizes that investigational new drugs (IND) play a significant role in the delivery of innovative drug therapy approaches and as adjunctive aids in various diagnostics testing modalities.

2. APhA supports coverage by government and other third-party payers for pharmacy services associated with the use of drugs undergoing assessment.

(Am Pharm NS30(6):46 June 1990) (Reviewed 2004) (Reviewed 2009) (Reviewed 2010) (Reviewed 2015)

Investigational New Drug (IND) Studies
1981

APhA encourages investigators and sponsors who are conducting IND studies to utilize the professional services of pharmacists in carrying out such studies.

(Am Pharm NS2(5):40 July 1981) (Reviewed 2004) (Reviewed 2009) (Reviewed 2010) (Reviewed 2015)

Off-label Indications
Off-label Use of FDA-approved Products
1994

1. APhA advocates the collaboration of pharmacists, other health care professionals, industry, and the FDA in developing procedures to evaluate off-label use of FDA-approved products.

2. APhA encourages industry and government cooperation to streamline approval of beneficial off-label therapeutic or diagnostic use of FDA-approved products.

3. APhA advocates removal of restrictions on reimbursement of pharmaceutical services and FDA-approved products when, in the judgment of the pharmacist, those products are for medically acceptable, off-label uses.

(Am Pharm NS34(6):56 June 1994)(Reviewed 2004) (Reviewed 2010) (Reviewed 2015)

Orphan Drugs
Needed Drugs of Limited Commercial Value (Orphan Drugs)
2004,
1981

1. APhA supports incentives to manufacturers, private foundations, academic and public institutions, and others for the development, manufacture, and distribution of needed drugs (including biological) and drug dosage forms of limited commercial value.

2. APhA supports the federal government bearing the responsibility to make orphan drugs and drug dosage forms available when incentives alone fail to achieve the availability of needed drugs (including biologicals) of limited commercial value.

(Am Pharm NS21(5):41 May 1981) (JAPhA NS44(5):551 September/October 2004) (Reviewed 2010) (Reviewed 2015)

Patient/pharmacist Relationships
Care Transitions
2014

1. APhA supports pharmacists leading medication management activities during care transitions to ensure safe and effective medication use.

2. APhA supports the integral role of pharmacists during care transitions for improving quality of patient-centered care and reducing overall costs to the health care system.

3. APhA strongly encourages collaboration and shared accountability among patients, family members, caregivers, pharmacists, and other health care providers during care transitions.

4. APhA supports the development and utilization of standardized processes that facilitate real-time, bidirectional communication of protected health information during care transitions.

5. APhA supports that documentation of health outcomes is an essential component of any care transition program to demonstrate value and ensure continuous quality improvement.

6. APhA supports financially viable payment models that recognize the value of pharmacists' services, including, but not limited to, those provided during care transitions.

7. APhA strongly urges the development and implementation of multidisciplinary, interprofessional, and team-based training for health care professionals and students to improve the quality and consistency of care transition services.

8. APhA urges the collaboration and partnership of community pharmacies with health care systems, institutions, and other entities involved in care transitions.

(JAPhA 54(4) 357 July/August 2014)

Use of Social Media
2014

1. APhA encourages the use of social media in ways that advance patient care and uphold pharmacists as trusted and accessible health care providers.

2. APhA supports the use of social media as a mechanism for the delivery of patient-specific care in a platform that allows for appropriate patient and provider protections and access to necessary health care information.

3. APhA supports the inclusion of social media education, including but not limited to appropriate use and professionalism, as a component of pharmacy education and continuing professional development.

4. APhA affirms that the patient's right to privacy and confidentiality shall not be compromised through the use of social media.

5. APhA urges pharmacists and student pharmacists to self-monitor their social media presence for professionalism and that posted clinical information is accurate and appropriate.

6. APhA advocates for continued development and utilization of social media by pharmacists and other health care professionals during public health emergencies.

(JAPhA 54(4) 357 July/August 2014)

Transfer Incentives
2010

APhA advocates the elimination of coupons, rebates, discounts, and other incentives provided to patients that promote the transfer of prescriptions between competitors.

(JAPhA NS40(4):471 July/August 2010)(Reviewed 2015)

Disparities in Healthcare
2009

APhA supports elimination of disparities in health care delivery.

(JAPhA NS49(4):493 July/August 2009)(Reviewed 2013)

Cultural Health Beliefs and Medication Use
2006

1. APhA supports culturally sensitive outreach efforts to increase mutual understanding of the risks and other issues of using prescription medications without a prescription order or using unapproved products.

2. APhA supports expanding culturally competent health care services in all communities.

(JAPhA NS46(5):561 September/October 2006) (Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2014)

Cultural Competence
2005

1. Recognizing the diverse patient population served by our profession and the impact of cultural diversity on patient safety and medication use outcomes, APhA encourages pharmacists to continually strive to achieve and develop cultural awareness, sensitivity, and cultural competence.

2. APhA shall facilitate access to resources that assist pharmacists and student pharmacists in achieving and maintaining cultural competence relevant to their practice.

(JAPhA NS45(5):554 September/October 2005) (Reviewed 2006)(Reviewed 2011)(Reviewed 2016)

Health Literacy
2005,
2002

1. APhA encourages pharmacists and student pharmacists to increase their awareness of health literacy. Health literacy is the degree to which people can obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services they need to make appropriate health decisions.

2. APhA encourages pharmacists and student pharmacists to assess patients' health literacy and then implement appropriate communications and education.

3. APhA encourages the review of all patient information for health literacy appropriateness.

(JAPhA NS42(5):Suppl. 1:S60 September/October 2002) (JAPhA NS45(5):556 September/October 2005)(Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2014)

Patient Safety
2005

1. Patient safety is influenced by patients, caregivers, health care providers, and health care systems. APhA recognizes that improving patient safety requires a comprehensive, continuous, and collaborative approach to health care.

2. APhA should promote public and provider awareness of and encourage participation in patient safety initiatives.

3. APhA supports research on a more effective, proactive, and integrated health care system focused on improving patient safety. APhA encourages implementation of appropriate recommendations from that research.

(JAPhA NS45(5):554 September/October 2005) (Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2011)(Reviewed 2016)

Prior Authorization
2003

1. APhA opposes prior authorization programs that create barriers to patient care.

2. Patients, prescribers, and pharmacists should have ready access to the coverage conditions for medications or devices requiring prior authorization.

3. Prescription drug benefit plan sponsors and administrators should actively seek and integrate the input of network pharmacists in the design and operation of prior authorization programs.

4. APhA supports prior authorization programs that allow pharmacists to provide the necessary information to determine appropriate patient care.

5. APhA expects prescription drug benefit plan sponsors to compensate pharmacy providers who complete third-party payer authorization procedures. Compensation should be in addition to dispensing fee arrangements.

6. APhA should work with relevant groups to improve prior authorization design and decrease prescription processing inefficiencies.

(JAPhA NS43(5):Suppl. 1:S58 September/October 2003) (Reviewed 2008)(Reviewed 2013)(Reviewed 2015)

Pharmacist/Patient Communication
2002,
1991,
1977

1. APhA acknowledges:

(a) Patients have the right to be informed participants in decisions related to their personal health care.

(b) Pharmacists have a professional obligation to contribute to the education of patients to help achieve optimal drug therapy.

(c) Pharmacists should provide drug related information to their patients (or patients' agent) by face-to-face oral consultation, supplemented by written or printed material, or any other means or combination of means that is best suited to an individual patient's needs for specific information.

2. APhA acknowledges that the pharmacist is responsible for initiating pharmacist/patient dialogue and assessing the patient's ability to comprehend and communicate so as to optimize the patient's understanding of and compliance with drug therapy.

3. APhA encourages the research and development of ancillary communication aids and techniques to maximize patient understanding of medication and its proper use.

(JAPhA NS17:464 July 1977) (Am Pharm NS3(16):28 June 1991) (JAPhA NS2(5):Suppl. 1:563 September/October 2002) (Reviewed 2006) (Reviewed 2010) (Reviewed 2015)

Administrative Contributions to Medication Errors
2001

1. APhA encourages implementation of a standard prescription drug card to improve the dispensing process and encourages the use of technology in this implementation.

2. APhA supports the use of technology to facilitate record-keeping of patient prescription information for third-party audit purposes and regulatory compliance.

3. APhA supports education of the public regarding the responsibility to be informed consumers of their pharmacy benefits provided through third-party plans.

4. APhA encourages third-party plans to provide pharmacies all information necessary for benefits administration in a timely organized manner or to provide access to the information through the Internet or similar technologies at no cost to the pharmacy.

5. APhA supports the distinction of plan management messages (e.g., days' supply limitations or formulary management) from drug utilization review messages (e.g., drug-drug interactions). APhA supports the communication of all plan management options available (e.g., approved formulary alternatives) from the claims processor to the pharmacist.

6. APhA supports the development and use of systems to communicate in-pharmacy drug utilization review messages with on-line claims processing systems to eliminate redundant and/or repetitive messages.

7. APhA encourages the transmission of pre-adjudication drug utilization review messages (i.e., drug utilization review communication between the prescriber and claims processor) to the pharmacist.

8. APhA supports efforts to: (a) improve on-line drug utilization review messages by the establishment of evidence-based criteria to prevent drug related conflicts that have the potential for causing serious harm, and (b) eliminate drug utilization review messages that have questionable or inconsequential impact on patient outcomes.

(JAPhA NS4(5):Suppl. 1:57 September/October 2001) (Reviewed 2003) (Reviewed 2007)(Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2014)

Medication Errors
2000

1. APhA, as the national professional society of pharmacists, will work to ensure that pharmacy is the profession responsible for providing leadership in developing a safe, error-free medication use process.

2. APhA supports continuation and expansion of medication error reporting programs.

3. Medication error reporting programs should be non-punitive in nature and allow appropriate anonymity to facilitate error reporting and development of solutions to eliminate error.

4. APhA supports identifying the system-based causes of errors and building systems to support safe medication practice.

(JAPhA NS(9):40 September/October 2000) (Reviewed 2007) (Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2014)

Continuum of Patient Care
1995

1. APhA advocates and will facilitate pharmacists' participation in the continuum of patient care. The continuum of patient care is characterized by the interdisciplinary care provided a patient through a series of organized, connected events or activities independent of time and practice site, in order to optimize desired therapeutic outcomes.

2. APhA will facilitate pharmacists' participation in the continuum of patient care by:

(a) Achieving recognition for the pharmacist as a primary care provider;

(b) Securing access for pharmacists to patient information systems, including creation of the necessary software for the purpose of record maintenance of cognitive services provided by pharmacists;

(c) Developing means and methods to establish and enable pharmacists' direct participation in the continuum of patient care.

(Am Pharm NS35(6):36 June 1995) (Reviewed 2004) (Reviewed 2006)(Reviewed 2011)(Reviewed 2016)

Biotechnology
1991

APhA encourages the development of appropriate educational materials and guidelines to assist pharmacists in addressing the ethical issues associated with the appropriate use of biotechnology-based products.

(Am Pharm NS31(6):29 June 1991) (Reviewed 2004) (Reviewed 2007) (Reviewed 2010) (Reviewed 2015)(Reviewed 2016)(Reviewed 2017)

Cost-effectiveness of Drug Products and Pharmacy Services
1987

APhA supports the development of programs which educate pharmacy's several publics about the cost-effectiveness of drug products and related comprehensive pharmacists services.

(Am Pharm NS27(6):422 June 1987) (Reviewed 2004) (Reviewed 2010)(Reviewed 2011)(Reviewed 2016)

Communications with Patients: Drug Delivery Practice
1971

APhA supports the Academy of General Practice of Pharmacy statement on drug delivery practice that reads as follows: "When requested by a patient or a prescriber to deliver medication to the home of a patient, the pharmacist will communicate directly with the patient, or his representative, instructions and warnings concerning the medication and ascertain that a responsible individual will receive the medication or determine that the medication will be left in a safe place."

(JAPhA NS11:272 May 1971) (Reviewed 2001) (Reviewed 2007)(Reviewed 2012)(Reviewed 2017)

Point-of-Care Testing
2016

1. APhA recognizes the value of pharmacist-provided, point-of-care testing and related clinical services, and it promotes the provision of those tests and services in accordance with the Joint Commission of Pharmacy Practitioners Pharmacists' Patient Care Process.

2. APhA advocates for laws, regulations, and policies that enable pharmacist-provided, point-of-care testing and related clinical services that are consistent with the pharmacists' role in team-based care.

3. APhA opposes laws, regulations, and policies that create barriers to the tests that have been waived by the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) and that are administered and interpreted by pharmacists.

4. APhA encourages use of educational programming and resources to facilitate practice implementation of pharmacist-provided, point-of-care testing and related clinical services.

5. APhA supports patients taking active roles in the management of their health, including their ability to request and obtain pharmacist-provided, point-of-care tests and related clinical services.

6. APhA advocates for access to, coverage of, and payment for both pharmacist-provided, point-of-care tests and any related clinical services.

(JPhA 56(4); 369 July/August 2016)

Pharmaceutical Care
Ensuring Access to Pharmacists' Services
2013

1. Pharmacists are health care providers who must be recognized and compensated by payers for their professional services.

2. APhA actively supports the adoption of standardized processes for the provision, documentation, and claims submission of pharmacists' services.

3. APhA supports pharmacists' ability to bill payers and be compensated for their services consistent with the processes of other health care providers.

4. APhA supports recognition by payers that compensable pharmacist services range from generalized to focused activities intended to improve health outcomes based on individual patient needs.

5. APhA advocates for the development and implementation of a standardized process for verification of pharmacists' credentials as a means to foster compensation for pharmacist services and reduce administrative redundancy.

6. APhA advocates for pharmacists' access and contribution to clinical and claims data to support treatment, payment, and health care operations.

7. APhA actively supports the integration of pharmacists' service level and outcome data with other health care provider and claims data.

(JAPhA 53(4): 365 July/August 2013)

Pharmacy Practice-based Research Networks
2013,
2008

1. APhA supports establishment of pharmacy practice-based research networks (PBRNs) to strengthen the evidence base in support of pharmacists' patient care services.

2. APhA encourages collaborations among stakeholders to determine the minimal infrastructure and resources needed to develop and implement local, regional, and nationwide networks for performing pharmacy practice-based research.

3. APhA encourages pharmacy residency programs to actively participate in pharmacy PBRNs (practice-based research networks).

(JAPhA NS48(4):471 July/August 2008) (JAPhA 53(4) 366 July/August 2013)

The Pharmacist's Role in Laboratory Monitoring and Health Screening
2012,
2003

1. APhA supports pharmacist involvement in appropriate laboratory testing and health screening, including pharmacists directly conducting the activity, supervising such activity, ordering and interpreting such tests, and communicating such tests results.

2. APhA supports revision of relevant laws and regulations to facilitate pharmacist involvement in appropriate laboratory testing and health screening as essential components of patient care

3. APhA encourages research to further demonstrate the value of pharmacist involvement in laboratory testing and health screening services.

4. APhA supports public and private sector compensation for pharmacist involvement in laboratory testing and health screening services.

5. APhA supports training and education of pharmacists and student pharmacists to direct, perform, and interpret appropriate laboratory testing and health screening services. Such education and training should include proficiency testing, quality control, and quality assurance.

6. APhA encourages collaboration and research with other health care providers to ensure appropriate interpretation and use of laboratory monitoring and health screening results.

(JAPhA NS43(5)Suppl. 1:S58 September/October 2003) (Reviewed 2007)(Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2010)(JAPhA NS52(4) 460 July/August 2012)(Reviewed 2013)(Reviewing 2016)(Reviewed 2017)

Pharmacist's Role in Health Care Reform
2011

1. APhA affirms that pharmacists are the medication experts whose accessibility uniquely positions them to increase access to and improve quality of health care while decreasing overall costs.

2. APhA asserts that pharmacists must be recognized as the essential and accountable patient care provider on the health care team responsible for optimizing outcomes through medication therapy management (MTM).

3. APhA asserts the following: (a) Medication Therapy Management Services: Definition and Program Criteria is the standard definition of MTM that must be recognized by all stakeholders. (b) Medication Therapy Management in Pharmacy Practice: Core Elements of an MTM Service Model, as adopted by the profession of pharmacy, shall serve as the foundational MTM service model.

4. APhA asserts that pharmacists must be included as essential patient care provider and compensated as such in every health care model, including but not limited to, the medical home and accountable care organizations.

5. APhA actively promotes the outcomes-based studies, pilot programs, demonstration projects, and other activities that document and reconfirm pharmacists' impact on patient health and well-being, process of care delivery, and overall health care costs.

(JAPhA NS51(4) 482;July/August 2011)(Reviewed 2016)

Pharmacogenomics/Personalized Medicine
2010

1. APhA supports evidence-based personalized medicine, defined as the use of a person's clinical, genetic, genomic, and environmental information to select a medication or its dose, to choose a therapy, or to recommend preventive measures, as a means to improve patient safety and optimize health outcomes.

2. APhA promotes pharmacists as health care providers in the collection, use, interpretation, and application of pharmacogenomic data to optimize health outcomes.

3. APhA supports the development and implementation of programs, tools, and clinical guidelines that facilitate the translation and application of pharmacogenomic data into clinical practice.

4. APhA supports the inclusion of pharmacogenomic analysis in the drug development/approval and postmarketing surveillance processes.

(JAPhA NS50(4):471 July/August 2010) (Reviewed 2015)

Billing and Documentation of Medication Therapy Management (MTM) Services
2008

1. APhA encourages the development and use of a system for billing of MTM services that: (a) includes a standardized data set for transmission of billing claims; (b) utilizes a standardized process that is consistent with claim billing by other healthcare providers; (c) utilizes a billing platform that is accepted by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) and is compliant with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)

2. APhA supports the pharmacist's or pharmacy's choice of a documentation system that allows for transmission of any MTM billing claim and interfaces with the billing platform used by the insurer or payer.

3. APhA encourages pharmacists to use the American Medical Association (AMA) Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes for billing of MTM services.

4. APhA supports efforts to further develop CPT codes for billing of pharmacists' services, through the work of the Pharmacist Services Technical Advisory Coalition (PSTAC).

(JAPhA NS48(4):471 July/August 2008) (Reviewed 2010) (Reviewed 2015)(Reviewed 2016)

The Pharmacist's Role in Therapeutic Outcomes
2003,
1992

1. APhA affirms that achieving optimal therapeutic outcomes for each patient is a shared responsibility of the health care team.

2. APhA recognizes that a primary responsibility of the pharmacist in achieving optimal therapeutic outcomes is to take an active role in the development and implementation of a therapeutic plan and in the appropriate monitoring of each patient.

(Am Pharm NS32(6):515 June 1992) (JAPhA NS43(5):Suppl. 1:S57 September/October 2003) (Reviewed 2007) (Reviewed 2009) (Reviewed 2010)(Reviewed 2011)(Reviewed 2016)(Reviewed 2016)

Pharmacy-based Screening and Monitoring Services
1989

APhA supports projects that demonstrate and evaluate various pharmacy-based screening and monitoring services.

(Am Pharm NS29(7):463 July 1989) (Reviewed 2006) (Reviewed 2007)(Reviewed 2012)(Reviewed 2013)(Reviewed 2017)

Point-of-Care Testing
2016

1. APhA recognizes the value of pharmacist-provided, point-of-care testing and related clinical services, and it promotes the provision of those tests and services in accordance with the Joint Commission of Pharmacy Practitioners Pharmacists' Patient Care Process.

2. APhA advocates for laws, regulations, and policies that enable pharmacist-provided, point-of-care testing and related clinical services that are consistent with the pharmacists' role in team-based care.

3. APhA opposes laws, regulations, and policies that create barriers to the tests that have been waived by the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) and that are administered and interpreted by pharmacists.

4. APhA encourages use of educational programming and resources to facilitate practice implementation of pharmacist-provided, point-of-care testing and related clinical services.

5. APhA supports patients taking active roles in the management of their health, including their ability to request and obtain pharmacist-provided, point-of-care tests and related clinical services.

6. APhA advocates for access to, coverage of, and payment for both pharmacist-provided, point-of-care tests and any related clinical services.

(JPhA 56(4); 369 July/August 2016)

Pharmacy Crime And Security
Privacy of Pharmacists' Personal Information
2007

1. APhA supports protecting pharmacist, student pharmacist, and pharmacy technician personal information (e.g. home address, telephone, and personal email address).

2. APhA opposes legislative or regulatory requirements that mandate the publication of pharmacist, student pharmacist and pharmacy technician personal information (e.g. home address, telephone, and personal email address).

3. APhA encourages state boards of pharmacy to remove from their Web sites personal addresses, phone numbers, email, and other non-business contact information of pharmacists, student pharmacists, and pharmacy technicians.

(JAPhA NS45(5):580 September-October 2007)(Reviewed 2012)(Reviewed 2017)

Security: Pharmacists' Responsibility
2003,
1971

APhA encourages pharmacists to voluntarily remove all proprietary drug products with potential for abuse or adverse drug interactions from general sales areas and to make their dispensing the personal responsibility of the pharmacist.

(JAPhA NS11:267 May 1971)(JAPhA NS43(5):Suppl. 1:S58 September/October 2003)(Reviewed 2006)(Reviewed 2011)(Reviewed 2016)

Innovative Approaches to Combating Pharmacy Crime
1982

APhA encourages pharmaceutical associations to work with state legislators in an effort to provide mandatory imprisonment for the theft of controlled substances and the restriction of bail for such crimes.

(Am Pharm NS22(7):32 July 1982) (Reviewed 2003) (Reviewed 2004) (Reviewed 2010)

Prescription Department Security
1971

The committee recommends that APhA support state legislation to require that a prescription department must be secured whenever the pharmacist or persons authorized by the pharmacist are not present.

(JAPhA NS11:267 May 1971)(Reviewed 2006)(Reviewed 2011)(Reviewed 2016)

Pharmacy Practice
Pharmacists' Role Within Value-based Payment Models
2017

1. APhA supports value-based payment models that include pharmacists as essential health care team members and that promote coordinated care, improved health outcomes, and lower total costs of health care.

2. APhA encourages the development and implementation of meaningful, consistent process-based and outcomes-based quality measures that allow attribution of pharmacist impact within value-based payment models.

3. APhA advocates for mechanisms that recognize and compensate pharmacists for their contributions toward meeting goals of quality and total costs of care in value-based payment models, separate and distinct from the full product and dispensing cost reimbursement.

4. APhA advocates that pharmacists must have real-time access to and exchange of electronic health record data within value-based payment models in order to achieve optimal health and medication-related outcomes.

5. APhA supports education, training, and resources that help pharmacists transform and integrate their practices with value-based payment models and programs.

(JAPhA 57(4): 441 July/August 2017)

Pharmacy Performance Networks
2017

1. APhA supports performance networks that improve patient care and health outcomes, reduce costs, use pharmacists as an integral part of the health care team, and include evidence-based quality measures.

2. APhA urges collaboration between pharmacists and payers to develop distinct, transparent, fair, and equitable payment strategies for achieving performance measures associated with providing pharmacists' patient care services that are separate from the reimbursement methods used for product fulfillment.

3. APhA advocates for prospective notification of evidence-based quality measures that will be used by a performance network to assess provider and practice performance. Furthermore, updates on provider and practice performance against these measures should be provided in a timely and regular manner.

4. APhA supports pharmacists' professional autonomy to determine processes that improve performance on evidence-based quality measures.

(JAPhA 57(4): 441 July/August 2017)

Pharmacists as Providers Under the Social Security Act
2016,
2011

APhA supports changes to the Social Security Act to allow pharmacists to be recognized and paid as providers of patient care services.

(JAPhA NS51(4) 482;July/August 2011)(JAPhA 56(4); 379 July/August 2016)

Point-of-Care Testing
2016

1. APhA recognizes the value of pharmacist-provided, point-of-care testing and related clinical services, and it promotes the provision of those tests and services in accordance with the Joint Commission of Pharmacy Practitioners Pharmacists' Patient Care Process.

2. APhA advocates for laws, regulations, and policies that enable pharmacist-provided, point-of-care testing and related clinical services that are consistent with the pharmacists' role in team-based care.

3. APhA opposes laws, regulations, and policies that create barriers to the tests that have been waived by the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) and that are administered and interpreted by pharmacists.

4. APhA encourages use of educational programming and resources to facilitate practice implementation of pharmacist-provided, point-of-care testing and related clinical services.

5. APhA supports patients taking active roles in the management of their health, including their ability to request and obtain pharmacist-provided, point-of-care tests and related clinical services.

6. APhA advocates for access to, coverage of, and payment for both pharmacist-provided, point-of-care tests and any related clinical services.

(JPhA 56(4); 369 July/August 2016)

Antimicrobial Stewardship
2015

1. APhA supports the role of pharmacists in antimicrobial stewardship in all practice settings.

2. APhA supports pharmacists working in collaboration with others to lead the development and implementation of antimicrobial stewardship programs and initiatives.

3. APhA supports pharmacists advising prescribers and educating patients on the appropriate use of antimicrobials.

(JAPhA N55(4): 365 July/August 2015)

Integrated Nationwide Prescription Drug Monitoring Program
2015

1. APhA supports nationwide integration of prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMP) that incorporate federal, state, and territory databases for the purpose of providing health care professionals with accurate and real-time information to assist in clinical decision making when providing patient care services related to controlled substances.

2. APhA supports pharmacist involvement in the development of uniform standards for an integrated nationwide prescription drug monitoring program (PDMP) that includes the definition of authorized registered users, documentation, reporting requirements, system response time, security of information, minimum reporting data sets, and standard transaction format.

3. APhA supports mandatory prescription drug monitoring program (PDMP) enrollment by all health care providers, mandatory reporting by all those who dispense controlled substances, and appropriate system query by registrants during the patient care process related to controlled substances.

4. APhA advocates for the development of seamless workflow integration systems that would enable consistent use of a nationwide prescription drug monitoring program (PDMP) by registrants to facilitate prospective drug review as part of the patient care process related to controlled substances.

5. APhA advocates for continuous, sustainable federal funding sources for practitioners and system operators to utilize and maintain a standardized integrated and real-time nationwide prescription drug monitoring program (PDMP).

6. APhA supports the use of interprofessional advisory boards, that include pharmacists, to coordinate collaborative efforts for (a) compiling, analyzing, and using prescription drug monitoring program (PDMP) data trends related to controlled substance misuse, abuse, and/or fraud; (b) providing focused provider education and patient referral to treatment programs; and (c) supporting research activities on the impact of PDMPs.

7. APhA supports education and training for registrants about a nationwide prescription drug monitoring program (PDMP) to ensure proper data integrity, use, and confidentiality.

(JAPhA N55(4): 364 July/August 2015)

Interoperability of Communications Among Health Care Providers to Improve Quality of Patient Care
2015

1. APhA supports the establishment of secure, portable, and interoperable electronic patient health care records.

2. APhA supports the engagement of pharmacists with other stakeholders in the development and implementation of multidirectional electronic communication systems to improve patient safety, enhance quality care, facilitate care transitions, increase efficiency, and reduce waste.

3. APhA advocates for the inclusion of pharmacists in the establishment and enhancement of electronic health care information technologies and systems that must be interoperable, HIPAA compliant, integrated with claims processing, updated in a timely fashion, allow for data analysis, and do not place disproportionate financial burden on any one health care provider or stakeholder.

4. APhA advocates for pharmacists and other health care providers to have access to view, download and transmit electronic health records. Information shared among providers using a health information exchange should utilize a standardized secure interface based on recognized international health record standards for the transmission of health information.

5. APhA supports the integration of federal, state, and territory health information exchanges into an accessible, standardized, nationwide system.

6. APhA opposes business practices and policies that obstruct the electronic access and exchange of patient health information because these practices compromise patient safety and the provision of optimal patient care.

7. APhA advocates for the development of systems that facilitate and support electronic communication between pharmacists and prescribers concerning patient adherence, medication discontinuation, and other clinical factors that support quality care transitions.

8. APhA supports the development of education and training programs for pharmacists, student pharmacists, and other health care professionals on the appropriate use of electronic health records to reduce errors and improve the quality and safety of patient care.

9. APhA supports the creation and non-punitive application of a standardized, interoperable system for voluntary reporting of errors associated with the use of electronic health care information technologies and systems to enable aggregation of protected data and develop recommendations for improved quality.

(JAPhA N55(4): 364 July/August 2015)

Pharmacists Role in Promoting Medication Adherence
2015

1. APhA supports pharmacists leading the process of assessing and improving patient medication adherence in collaboration with the health care team.

2. APhA advocates for pharmacists taking leadership roles in working with administrators, health care professionals, payers, patients and other stakeholders to design processes, systems, and technology that promote interoperability and care coordination across settings to improve medication adherence.

3. APhA advocates for the profession of pharmacy to continually study, evaluate, and disseminate evidence-based methods to improve medication adherence.

4. APhA advocates for raising awareness about the issue of medication non-adherence and the importance of engaging patients in their treatment.

5. APhA supports education of the public, employee benefit managers, third-party payers, and other health care decision makers regarding the value and cost-effectiveness of the role of the pharmacist in improving medication adherence.

(JAPhA N55(4): 365 July/August 2015)

Role of the Pharmacist in the Care of Patients Using Cannabis
2015

1. APhA supports regulatory changes to further facilitate clinical research related to the clinical efficacy and safety associated with the use of cannabis and its various components.

2. APhA encourages health care provider education related to the clinical efficacy, safety, and management of patients using cannabis and its various components.

3. APhA advocates that the pharmacist collect and document information in the pharmacy patient profile about patient use of cannabis and its various components and provide appropriate patient counseling.

4. APhA supports pharmacist participation in furnishing cannabis and its various components when scientific data support the legitimate medical use of the products and delivery mechanisms, and federal, state, or territory laws or regulations permit pharmacists to furnish them.

5. APhA opposes pharmacist involvement in furnishing cannabis and its various components for recreational use.

(JAPhA N55(4): 365 July/August 2015)

Audits of Health Care Practices
2014

1. APhA recognizes that audits of health care practices, when used appropriately, may improve patient care and deter fraud, waste, and abuse.

2. APhA advocates for the use of standardized and efficient audit procedures with transparent criteria clearly communicated by the payor and readily accessible to providers in advance.

3. APhA advocates that audit processes should result in minimal disruption to practice work flow, minimal financial burden, and no impact on patient care.

4. APhA urges timely notification and scheduling of claims audits to minimize disruption of patient care delivery.

5. APhA supports the inclusion of education as a component of the audit process to improve documentation of services, meet payor requirements, and enhance the quality of care delivery.

6. APhA opposes incentive-based auditor compensation and the use of statistical methodologies, such as sample extrapolation, for determining the recoupment of funds from health care providers or health care organizations.

7. APhA advocates that audit reports include complete information listing audit discrepancies and appropriate guidelines for documenting and appealing these findings.

8. APhA advocates that pharmacy audits be performed in a professional manner by a pharmacist or certified pharmacy technician.

(JAPhA 54(4) 357 July/August 2014)

Care Transitions
2014

1. APhA supports pharmacists leading medication management activities during care transitions to ensure safe and effective medication use.

2. APhA supports the integral role of pharmacists during care transitions for improving quality of patient-centered care and reducing overall costs to the health care system.

3. APhA strongly encourages collaboration and shared accountability among patients, family members, caregivers, pharmacists, and other health care providers during care transitions.

4. APhA supports the development and utilization of standardized processes that facilitate real-time, bidirectional communication of protected health information during care transitions.

5. APhA supports that documentation of health outcomes is an essential component of any care transition program to demonstrate value and ensure continuous quality improvement.

6. APhA supports financially viable payment models that recognize the value of pharmacists' services, including, but not limited to, those provided during care transitions.

7. APhA strongly urges the development and implementation of multidisciplinary, interprofessional, and team-based training for health care professionals and students to improve the quality and consistency of care transition services.

8. APhA urges the collaboration and partnership of community pharmacies with health care systems, institutions, and other entities involved in care transitions.

(JAPhA 54(4) 357 July/August 2014)

Controlled Substances and Other Medications with the Potential for Abuse and Use of Opioid Reversal Agents
2014

1. APhA supports education for pharmacists and student pharmacists to address issues of pain management, palliative care, appropriate use of opioid reversal agents in overdose, drug diversion, and substance-related and addictive disorders.

2. APhA supports recognition of pharmacists as the health care providers who must exercise professional judgment in the assessment of a patient's conditions to fulfill corresponding responsibility for the use of controlled substances and other medications with the potential for misuse, abuse, and/or diversion.

3. APhA supports pharmacists' access to and use of prescription monitoring programs to identify and prevent drug misuse, abuse, and/or diversion.

4. APhA supports the development and implementation of state and federal laws and regulations that permit pharmacists to furnish opioid reversal agents to prevent opioid-related deaths due to overdose.

5. APhA supports the pharmacist's role in selecting appropriate therapy and dosing and initiating and providing education about the proper use of opioid reversal agents to prevent opioid-related deaths due to overdose.

(JAPhA 54(4) July/August 2014)(Reviewed 2015)

The Use and Sale of Electronic Cigarettes (e-cigarettes)
2014

1. APhA opposes the sale of e-cigarettes and other vaporized nicotine products in pharmacies until such time that scientific data support the health and environmental safety of these products.

2. APhA opposes the use of e-cigarettes and other vaporized nicotine products in areas subject to current clean air regulations for combustible tobacco products until such time that scientific data support the health and environmental safety of these products.

3. APhA urges pharmacists to become more knowledgeable about e-cigarettes and other vaporized nicotine products.

4. APhA urges the FDA to require the full disclosure of all ingredients in e-cigarettes and other vaporized nicotine products in both the pre-use and vapor states.

(JAPhA 54(4) 358 July/August 2014)

Use of Social Media
2014

1. APhA encourages the use of social media in ways that advance patient care and uphold pharmacists as trusted and accessible health care providers.

2. APhA supports the use of social media as a mechanism for the delivery of patient-specific care in a platform that allows for appropriate patient and provider protections and access to necessary health care information.

3. APhA supports the inclusion of social media education, including but not limited to appropriate use and professionalism, as a component of pharmacy education and continuing professional development.

4. APhA affirms that the patient's right to privacy and confidentiality shall not be compromised through the use of social media.

5. APhA urges pharmacists and student pharmacists to self-monitor their social media presence for professionalism and that posted clinical information is accurate and appropriate.

6. APhA advocates for continued development and utilization of social media by pharmacists and other health care professionals during public health emergencies.

(JAPhA 54(4) 357 July/August 2014)

Ensuring Access to Pharmacists' Services
2013

1. Pharmacists are health care providers who must be recognized and compensated by payers for their professional services.

2. APhA actively supports the adoption of standardized processes for the provision, documentation, and claims submission of pharmacists' services.

3. APhA supports pharmacists' ability to bill payers and be compensated for their services consistent with the processes of other health care providers.

4. APhA supports recognition by payers that compensable pharmacist services range from generalized to focused activities intended to improve health outcomes based on individual patient needs.

5. APhA advocates for the development and implementation of a standardized process for verification of pharmacists' credentials as a means to foster compensation for pharmacist services and reduce administrative redundancy.

6. APhA advocates for pharmacists' access and contribution to clinical and claims data to support treatment, payment, and health care operations.

7. APhA actively supports the integration of pharmacists' service level and outcome data with other health care provider and claims data.

(JAPhA 53(4): 365 July/August 2013)

Independent Practice of Pharmacists
2013,
2009

1. APhA recommends that health plans and payers contract with and appropriately compensate individual pharmacist providers for the level of care rendered without requiring the pharmacist to be associated with a pharmacy.

2. APhA supports adoption of state laws and rules pertaining to the independent practice of pharmacists when those laws and rules are consistent with APhA policy.

3. APhA, recognizing the positive impact that pharmacists can have in meeting unmet needs and managing medical conditions, supports the adoption of laws and regulations and the creation of payment mechanisms for appropriately trained pharmacists to autonomously provide patient care services, including prescribing, as part of the health care team.

(JAPhANS 49(4):492 July/August 2009)(Reviewed 2012)(JAPhA 53(4):366 July/August 2013)

Medication Take-Back/Disposal Programs
2013

1. APhA encourages pharmacist involvement in the planning and coordination of medication take-back programs for the purpose of disposal.

2. APhA supports increasing public awareness regarding medication take-back programs for the purpose of disposal.

3. APhA urges public and private stakeholders, including local, state, and federal agencies, to coordinate and create uniform, standardized regulations, including issues related to liability and sustainable funding sources, for the proper and safe disposal of unused medications.

4. APhA recommends ongoing medication take-back and disposal programs.

(JAPhA 53(4): 365 July/August 2013)

Pharmacists Providing Health Care Services
2013,
1978

APhA supports the study and development of new methods and procedures whereby pharmacists can increase their ability and expand their opportunities to provide health care services to patients.

(Am Pharm NS18(8):47 July 1978) (Reviewed 2007) (Reviewed 2008) (JAPhA 53(4):366 July/August 2013)(Reviewed 2016)

Pharmacists Providing Primary Care Services
2013

APhA advocates for the recognition and utilization of pharmacists as providers to address gaps in primary care.

(JAPhA 53(4): 365 July/August 2013)

Pharmacists' Role in the Development and Implementation of Evidence-based Clinical Guidelines
2013,
1995

1. APhA advocates direct involvement of pharmacists in the development, evaluation, and implementation of evidence-based clinical guidelines. Well-designed guidelines promote an interdisciplinary team approach to patient care that utilizes pharmacists' expertise in optimizing patient outcomes.

2. APhA believes that evidence-based clinical guidelines should promote optimal patient care built on the best available scientific data. These guidelines should be developed using an interdisciplinary approach and should be evaluated regularly to ensure that they reflect current practice standards.

3. APhA should promote educational programs, products, and services that facilitate the participation of pharmacists in the development, evaluation, and implementation of evidence-based practice guidelines in all practice settings.

4. APhA advocates the use by pharmacists, in all practice settings, of evidence-based practice guidelines for pharmaceutical care built on the best scientific data to optimize patient outcomes. These guidelines should be developed using an interdisciplinary approach and should be evaluated regularly to ensure that they reflect current practice standards.

(Am Pharm NS35(6):37 June 1995) (Reviewed 2003) (Reviewed 2008)(JAPhA53(4):366 July/August2013)

Pharmacy Practice-based Research Networks
2013,
2008

1. APhA supports establishment of pharmacy practice-based research networks (PBRNs) to strengthen the evidence base in support of pharmacists' patient care services.

2. APhA encourages collaborations among stakeholders to determine the minimal infrastructure and resources needed to develop and implement local, regional, and nationwide networks for performing pharmacy practice-based research.

3. APhA encourages pharmacy residency programs to actively participate in pharmacy PBRNs (practice-based research networks).

(JAPhA NS48(4):471 July/August 2008) (JAPhA 53(4) 366 July/August 2013)

Re-use of devices intended for "Single-Use"
2013,
2008

APhA opposes the reuse of devices intended for "single use" in the screening and management of patients consistent with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) guidelines.

(JAPhA NS48(4):471 July/August 2008) (JAPhA 53(4):366 July/August 2013)

Revisions to the Medication Classification System
2013

1. APhA supports the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) efforts to revise the drug classification paradigms for prescription and nonprescription medications to allow greater access to certain medications under conditions of safe use while maintaining patients' relationships with their pharmacists and other health care providers.

2. APhA supports the implementation or modification of state laws to facilitate pharmacists' implementation and provision of services related to a revised drug classification system.

3. APhA supports a patient care delivery model built on coordination and communication between pharmacists and other health care team members in the evaluation and management of care delivery.

4. APhA affirms that pharmacists are qualified to provide clinical interventions on medications under FDA's approved conditions of safe use.

5. APhA urges manufacturers, FDA, and other stakeholders to include pharmacists' input in the development and adoption of technology and standardized processes for services related to medications under FDA's defined conditions of safe use.

6. APhA supports the utilization of best practices, treatment algorithms, and clinical judgment of pharmacists and other health care providers to guide the evaluation and management of care delivery related to medications under FDA's approved conditions of safe use.

7. APhA encourages the inclusion of medications and services provided under FDA's defined conditions of safe use within health benefit coverage.

8. APhA supports compensation of pharmacists and other health care professionals for the provision of services related to FDA's defined conditions of safe use programs.

(JAPhA 53(4): 365 July/August 2013)

Controlled Substances Regulation and Patient Care
2012

1. APhA encourages the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) and other regulatory agencies to recognize pharmacists as partners that are committed to ensuring that patients in legitimate need of controlled substances are able to receive the medications.

2. APhA supports efforts to modernize and harmonize state and federal controlled substance laws.

3. APhA urges DEA and other regulatory agencies to balance patient care and regulatory issues when developing, interpreting, and enforcing laws and regulations.

4. APhA encourages DEA and other regulatory agencies to recognize the changes occurring in health care delivery and to establish a transparent and inclusive process for the timely updating of laws and regulations.

5. APhA encourages the U.S. Department of Justice to collaborate with professional organizations to identify and reduce: (a) the burdens on health care providers, (b) the cost of health care delivery, and (c) the barriers to patient care in the establishment and enforcement of controlled substance laws.

(JAPhA NS52(4) 457 July/August 2012)(Reviewed 2015)

Drug Supply Shortages and Patient Care
2012

1. APhA supports the immediate reporting by manufacturers to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of disruptions that may impact the market supply of medically necessary drug products to prevent, mitigate, or resolve drug shortage issues and supports the authority for FDA to impose penalties for failing to report.

2. APhA supports revising current laws and regulations that restrict the FDA's ability to provide timely communication to pharmacists, other health care providers, health systems, and professional associations regarding potential or real drug shortages.

3. APhA encourages the FDA, the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), and other stakeholders to collaborate in order to minimize barriers (e.g., aggregate production quotas, annual assessment of needs, unapproved drug initiatives) that contribute to or exacerbate drug shortages.

4. APhA should actively support legislation to hasten the development of an efficient regulatory process to approve therapeutically equivalent generic versions of biologic drug products.

5. APhA encourages pharmacists and other health care providers to assist in maintaining continuity of care during drug shortage situations by: (a) creating a practice site drug shortage plan as well as policies and procedures, (b) using reputable drug shortage management and information resources in decision making, (c) communicating with patients and coordinating with other health care providers, (d) avoiding excessive ordering and stockpiling of drugs, (e) acquiring drugs from reputable distributors, and (f) heightening their awareness of the potential for counterfeit or adulterated drugs entering the drug distribution system.

6. APhA encourages accrediting and regulatory agencies and the pharmaceutical science and manufacturing communities to evaluate policies/procedures related to the establishment and use of drug expiration dates and any impact those policies/procedures may have on drug shortages.

7. APhA encourages the active investigation and appropriate prosecution of entities that engage in price gouging and profiteering of medically necessary drug products in response to drug shortages.

(JAPhA NS52(4) 457 July/August 2012)(Reviewed 2017)

Pharmacist's Role in Health Care Reform
2011

1. APhA affirms that pharmacists are the medication experts whose accessibility uniquely positions them to increase access to and improve quality of health care while decreasing overall costs.

2. APhA asserts that pharmacists must be recognized as the essential and accountable patient care provider on the health care team responsible for optimizing outcomes through medication therapy management (MTM).

3. APhA asserts the following: (a) Medication Therapy Management Services: Definition and Program Criteria is the standard definition of MTM that must be recognized by all stakeholders. (b) Medication Therapy Management in Pharmacy Practice: Core Elements of an MTM Service Model, as adopted by the profession of pharmacy, shall serve as the foundational MTM service model.

4. APhA asserts that pharmacists must be included as essential patient care provider and compensated as such in every health care model, including but not limited to, the medical home and accountable care organizations.

5. APhA actively promotes the outcomes-based studies, pilot programs, demonstration projects, and other activities that document and reconfirm pharmacists' impact on patient health and well-being, process of care delivery, and overall health care costs.

(JAPhA NS51(4) 482;July/August 2011)(Reviewed 2016)

Pharmacy Practice Accreditation
2011

1. APhA should lead the creation of consensus-based, pharmacy profession-developed accreditation standards and methods of evaluation to optimize the quality and safety of patient care and promote best practices.

2. APhA urges that accrediting bodies use profession-developed standards for pharmacy.

3. APhA supports only those pharmacy accreditation processes that are voluntary, transparent, consensus-based, reasonably executable, and affordable, while avoiding duplication and barriers to patient care.

4. APhA opposes mandatory pharmacy accreditation.

5. APhA shall assume the leadership role among stakeholders on the design and implementation of an appropriate process for any new pharmacy accrediting program.

6. APhA supports the appropriate use of data gathered from pharmacy practice monitoring processes to facilitate the advancement of pharmacy practice and quality of patient care.

(JAPhA NS51(4) 482;July/August 2011)(Reviewed 2016)

Potential Conflicts of Interest in Pharmacy Practice
2011

1. APhA reaffirms that as health care professionals, pharmacists are expected to act in the best interest of patients when making clinical recommendations.

2. APhA supports pharmacists using evidence-based practices to guide decisions that lead to the delivery of optimal patient care.

3. APhA supports pharmacist development, adoption, and use of policies and procedures to manage potential conflicts of interest in practice.

4. APhA should develop core principles that guide pharmacists in developing and using policies and procedures for identifying and managing potential conflicts of interest.

(JAPhA NS51(4) 482;July/August 2011)(Reviewed 2016)

The Role and Contributions of the Pharmacist in Public Health
2011

In concert with the American Public Health Association's (APHA) 2006 policy statement, "The Role of the Pharmacist in Public Health," APhA encourages collaboration with APHA and other public health organizations to increase pharmacists' participation in initiatives designed to meet global, national, regional, state, local, and community health goals.

(JAPhA NS51(4) 482;July/August 2011)(Reviewed 2012)(Reviewed 2016)

E-prescribing Standardization
2010

1. APhA supports the standardization of user interfaces to improve quality and reduce errors unique to e-prescribing.

2. APhA supports reporting mechanisms and research efforts to evaluate the effectiveness, safety, and quality of e-prescribing systems, computerized prescriber order entry (CPOE) systems, and the e-prescriptions that they produce, in order to improve health information technology systems and, ultimately, patient care.

3. APhA supports the development of financial incentives for pharmacists and prescribers to provide high quality e-prescribing activities.

4. APhA supports the inclusion of pharmacists in quality improvement and meaningful use activities related to the use of e-prescribing and other health information technology that would positively impact patient health outcomes.

(JAPhA NS40(4):471 July/August 2010)(Reviewed 2012)(Reviewed 20..14) (Reviewed 2015)

Personal Health Records
2010

1. APhA supports patient utilization of personal health records, defined as records of health-related information managed, shared, and controlled by the individual, to facilitate self-management and communication across the continuum of care.

2. APhA urges both public and private entities to identify and include pharmacists and other stakeholders in the development of personal health record systems and the adoption of standards, including but not limited to terminology, security, documentation, and coding of data contained within personal health records.

3. APhA supports the development, implementation, and maintenance of personal health record systems that are accessible and searchable by pharmacists and other health care providers, interoperable and portable across health information systems, customizable to the needs of the patient, and able to differentiate information provided by a health care provider and the patient.

4. APhA supports pharmacists taking the leadership role in educating the public about the importance of maintaining current and accurate medication-related information within personal health records.

(JAPhA NS40(4):471 July/August 2010)(Reviewed 2013)(Reviewed 2014) (Reviewed 2015)

Pharmacogenomics/Personalized Medicine
2010

1. APhA supports evidence-based personalized medicine, defined as the use of a person's clinical, genetic, genomic, and environmental information to select a medication or its dose, to choose a therapy, or to recommend preventive measures, as a means to improve patient safety and optimize health outcomes.

2. APhA promotes pharmacists as health care providers in the collection, use, interpretation, and application of pharmacogenomic data to optimize health outcomes.

3. APhA supports the development and implementation of programs, tools, and clinical guidelines that facilitate the translation and application of pharmacogenomic data into clinical practice.

4. APhA supports the inclusion of pharmacogenomic analysis in the drug development/approval and postmarketing surveillance processes.

(JAPhA NS50(4):471 July/August 2010) (Reviewed 2015)

Health Information Technology
2009

1. APhA supports the delivery of informatics education within pharmacy schools and continuing education programs to improve patient care, understand interoperability among systems, understand where to find information, increase productivity, and improve the ability to measure and report the value of pharmacists in the health care system.

2. APhA urges that pharmacists have read/write access to electronic health record data for the purposes of improving patient care and medication use outcomes.

3. APhA encourages inclusion of pharmacists in the definition, development, and implementation of health information technologies for the purpose of improving the quality of patient-centric health care.

4. APhA urges public and private entities to include pharmacist representatives in the creation of standards, the certification of systems, and the integration of medication use systems with health information technology.

(JAPhA NS49(4):492 July/August 2009) (Reviewed 2010)(Reviewed 2013)(Reviewed 2014) (Reviewed 2015)

Non-FDA-Approved Drugs and Patient Safety
2009

1. The American Pharmacists Association calls for education and collaboration among health professional organizations, federal agencies, and other stakeholders to ensure that all manufacturer, distributor, and repackager marketed prescription drugs used in patient care have been FDA-approved as safe and effective.

2. APhA supports initiatives aimed at closing regulatory and distribution-system loopholes that facilitate market entry of new prescription drugs products without FDA approval.

3. APhA encourages health professionals to consider FDA approval status of prescription drug products when making decisions about prescribing, dispensing, substitution, purchasing, formulary development, and in the development of pharmacy/medical education programs and drug information compendia.

(JAPhA NS49(4):492 July/August 2009)(Reviewed 2014)

Pharmacist's Role in Patient Safety
2009

1. It is APhA's position that patient safety initiatives must include pharmacists in leadership roles.

2. APhA encourages dissemination of best practices derived from nationally aggregated reporting data systems to pharmacists for the purpose of improving the medication use process and making informed decisions that directly impact patient safety and quality.

3. APhA encourages the profession of pharmacy to continually review and evaluate ways to enhance training, curricula, continuing education and accountability of pharmacists to improve patient safety.

4. APhA encourages risk management and post-marketing surveillance programs to be standardized and include infrastructures and compensation necessary to allow pharmacists to support these patient safety programs.

5. APhA supports the creation of voluntary, standardized and interoperable reporting systems for patient safety events to minimize barriers to pharmacist participation and to enable aggregation of data and improve quality of medication use systems. The system should be free, voluntary, non-punitive, easily accessible, and user friendly for all providers within the healthcare system.

6. APhA supports the elimination of hand-written prescriptions or medication orders.

(JAPhA NS49(4):492 July/August 2009) (Reviewed 2010) (Reviewed 2015)

Billing and Documentation of Medication Therapy Management (MTM) Services
2008

1. APhA encourages the development and use of a system for billing of MTM services that: (a) includes a standardized data set for transmission of billing claims; (b) utilizes a standardized process that is consistent with claim billing by other healthcare providers; (c) utilizes a billing platform that is accepted by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) and is compliant with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)

2. APhA supports the pharmacist's or pharmacy's choice of a documentation system that allows for transmission of any MTM billing claim and interfaces with the billing platform used by the insurer or payer.

3. APhA encourages pharmacists to use the American Medical Association (AMA) Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes for billing of MTM services.

4. APhA supports efforts to further develop CPT codes for billing of pharmacists' services, through the work of the Pharmacist Services Technical Advisory Coalition (PSTAC).

(JAPhA NS48(4):471 July/August 2008) (Reviewed 2010) (Reviewed 2015)(Reviewed 2016)

Pharmacy Compounding Accreditation
2008

1. APhA reaffirms the 1992 Compounding Activities of Pharmacists policy, which states that APhA affirms that compounding pursuant to or in anticipation of a prescription or diagnostic preparation order is an essential part of health care that is the prerogative of the pharmacist.

2. APhA supports compounding as defined by the Pharmacy Compounding Accreditation Board (PCAB) as a means to meet patient drug therapy needs.

3. APhA opposes compounding when identical medications are commercially and readily available in strength and dosage form to meet patient drug therapy needs.

4. APhA asserts that compounding is subject to regulations and oversight from state boards of pharmacy. APhA urges state boards of pharmacy to identify and take appropriate action against entities who are illegally manufacturing medications under the guise of compounding.

5. APhA supports accreditation of compounding sites by PCAB to ensure patient safety. APhA encourages state boards of pharmacy to recommend accreditation for those sites that engage in more than basic non sterile compounding as defined by PCAB.

6. APhA supports the development of education, training and recognition programs that enhance pharmacist and student pharmacist knowledge and skills to engage in compounding beyond basic, non sterile preparations as defined by PCAB.

7. APhA encourages the exploration of a specialty certification in the area of compounding through the Board of Pharmaceutical Specialties (BPS).

(JAPhA NS48(4):470 July/August 2008) (Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2011)(Reviewed 2016)

Regulatory Compliance/Regulatory Burden
2008,
2001

APhA supports measures that protect the patient, public, and employees from pharmacy conditions that pose a threat to health.

(JAPhA NS41(5)Suppl.1:S9 September/October 2001)(JAPhA NS48(4):470 July/August 2008)(Reviewed 2013)

Re-Distribution of Previously Dispensed Medications
2007

1. As a matter of patient safety, APhA opposes the re-dispensing of a previously dispensed medication once it has been out of the control of a health care professional.

2. APhA supports a public awareness program to explain why the re-dispensing of a previously dispensed medication once it is out of the control of the healthcare professional is a public health safety concern.

(JAPhA NS45(5):580 September-October 2007)(Reviewed 2012)(Reviewed 2017)

Continuity of Care
2006

1. APhA supports the pharmacist as the most appropriate member of the health care team responsible for reconciling medication use when patients move between practice settings within the continuum of care.

2. APhA supports the development and use, in practice, of a standardized, portable, accessible, HIPAA compliant, and secure Electronic Health Record (EHR) to facilitate continuity of care across all practice settings. The EHR shall include the clinical data elements necessary to support the performance of medication reconciliation.

3. APhA supports patient access to pharmacists with specialized skills and expertise. The patient's pharmacist should make patient referrals where appropriate.

(JAPhA NS46(5):561 September/October 2006) (Reviewed 2007) (Reviewed 2009) (Reviewed 2010)(Reviewed 2014)

Compounding with Multicomponent Vehicles
2005

1. APhA encourages companies that offer multi-component vehicles for compounding to list all ingredients and to restrict claims about the vehicles to the structure and function of the ingredients in those vehicles unless clinical evidence exists to support more specific claims.

2. When claims are made by companies for systemic delivery of active ingredients in multi-component vehicles, APhA encourages pharmacists to secure bioavailability data in support of such claims.

(JAPhA NS45(5):555 September/October 2005)(Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2014)

Pharmacists' Role in Immunizations
2005,
2003,
1996

1. APhA encourages pharmacists to take an active role in achieving the goals of the Healthy People program regarding immunizations through: (a) advocacy, (b) contracting with other health care professionals, or (c) pharmacists administering vaccines to vulnerable patients.

2. APhA encourages the availability of all vaccines to all pharmacies in order to meet public health needs.

3. APhA supports the compensation of pharmacists for the administration of immunizations and the reimbursement for vaccine distribution.

4. APhA should facilitate the development of programs that educate pharmacists about their role in immunizations in public health.

(JAPhA NS36(6):395 June 1996) (JAPhA NS43(5):Suppl. 1:S57 September/October 2003) (JAPhA NS45(5):556 September/October 2005)(Reviewed 2007)(Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2012)(Reviewed 2014)

Pharmacogenomics
2005,
2000

1. Recognizing the benefits and risks of pharmacogenomics and applications of this technology, APhA supports further research and assessment of the clinical, economic, and humanistic impact of pharmacogenomics on the health care system. This includes collaboration with other health care and consumer organizations for information sharing and development of pharmaceutical care processes involving these therapies. Pharmacogenomics is defined as the application of genomic technology in drug development and therapy.

2. APhA supports ongoing vigilance by all individuals and organizations with access to genetic information to maintain the confidentiality of the information.

3. APhA supports the development of educational materials to train and educate pharmacists, student pharmacists, pharmacy technicians, and consumers regarding pharmacogenomics.

(JAPhA NS40(5):Suppl.1:S8 September/October 2000) (JAPhA NS45(5):555 September/October 2005) (Reviewed 2009) (Reviewed 2010) (Reviewed 2015)

Development of the Cost Effectiveness of Clinical Pharmacy Services
2004,
1980

APhA encourages development and maintenance of programs, tools, and data useful in assessing the cost effective nature and benefits of patients oriented services within all areas of pharmacy practice.

(Am Pharm NS20(7):77 July 1980) (JAPhA NS44(5):551 September/October 2004) (Reviewed 2007) (Reviewed 2010) (Reviewed 2015)

Drug Information
2004,
1978

APhA supports the profession of pharmacy having the primary responsibility to foster the development of an organized system for the accumulation and dissemination of drug information and knowledge.

(Am Pharm NS18(8):42 July 1978) (JAPhA NS44(5):551 September/October 2004) (Reviewed 2007) (Reviewed 2010) (Reviewed 2015)

Drug Regimen Review (DRR) by Pharmacists
2004,
1979

APhA endorses adequate compensation for pharmacists by the patient, the government, and/or all other third-party programs for performing drug regimen review in all settings where drug therapy is used.

(Am Pharm NS19(7):61 June 1979) (APhA NS44(5):551 September/October 2004)(Reviewed 2007)(Reviewed 2012)(Reviewed 2017)

Drug Storage and Return Goods Policy
2004,
1971

1. APhA recommends that all practitioners and wholesalers provide controlled, room temperature, storage conditions as defined in the official compendia to adequately store drug products.

2. APhA recommends that manufacturers adopt return goods policies that allow the return of drug products even if the expiration date has not yet occurred.

3. APhA shall continue to study the problem of drug storage at all levels of distribution including in transit, in the pharmacy, and in the home and provide guidance for the profession and public in these areas.

(JAPhA NS11:271 May 1971) (JAPhA NS44(5):551 September/October 2004)(Reviewed 2007)(Reviewed 2012)(Reviewed 2017)

Drug Use Control by Pharmacists for All Prescription Drugs
2004,
1989

1. APhA supports the authority and responsibility of pharmacists in the management and control of all approved and investigational drug products.

2. APhA encourages corporate, government, and health-care organizations to recognize and utilize the unique expertise of the pharmacist in the management and control of all approved and investigational drug products.

(Am Pharm NS29(1):66 January 1989) (JAPhA NS44(5):551 September/October 2004) (Reviewed 2010) (Reviewed 2015)

Roles in Health Care for Pharmacists
2004,
1978

1. APhA shall develop and maintain new methods and procedures whereby pharmacists can increase their ability and expand their opportunities to provide health care services.

2. APhA supports legislative and judicial action that confirms pharmacists' professional rights to perform those functions consistent with APhA's definition of pharmacy practice and that are necessary to fulfill pharmacists' professional responsibilities to patients they serve.

(Am Pharm NS18(8):42 July 1978)(JAPhA NS44(5):551 September/October 2004)(Reviewed 2007)(Reviewed 2011)(Reviewed 2012)(Reviewed 2013)

The Pharmacist's Role with Diagnostic Drugs in Therapeutic Outcomes
2003,
1993

APhA recognizes that it is a responsibility of the pharmacists to take an active role in the selection and use of diagnostic drugs as an integral component in the development and implementation of a patient's therapeutic plan.

(Am Pharm NS33(7):56 July 1993) (JAPhA NS43(5):Suppl. 1:S57 September/October 2003) (Reviewed 2007) (Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2010)((Reviewed 2011)(Reviewed 2016)

Administrative Contributions to Medication Errors
2001

1. APhA encourages implementation of a standard prescription drug card to improve the dispensing process and encourages the use of technology in this implementation.

2. APhA supports the use of technology to facilitate record-keeping of patient prescription information for third-party audit purposes and regulatory compliance.

3. APhA supports education of the public regarding the responsibility to be informed consumers of their pharmacy benefits provided through third-party plans.

4. APhA encourages third-party plans to provide pharmacies all information necessary for benefits administration in a timely organized manner or to provide access to the information through the Internet or similar technologies at no cost to the pharmacy.

5. APhA supports the distinction of plan management messages (e.g., days' supply limitations or formulary management) from drug utilization review messages (e.g., drug-drug interactions). APhA supports the communication of all plan management options available (e.g., approved formulary alternatives) from the claims processor to the pharmacist.

6. APhA supports the development and use of systems to communicate in-pharmacy drug utilization review messages with on-line claims processing systems to eliminate redundant and/or repetitive messages.

7. APhA encourages the transmission of pre-adjudication drug utilization review messages (i.e., drug utilization review communication between the prescriber and claims processor) to the pharmacist.

8. APhA supports efforts to: (a) improve on-line drug utilization review messages by the establishment of evidence-based criteria to prevent drug related conflicts that have the potential for causing serious harm, and (b) eliminate drug utilization review messages that have questionable or inconsequential impact on patient outcomes.

(JAPhA NS4(5):Suppl. 1:57 September/October 2001) (Reviewed 2003) (Reviewed 2007)(Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2014)

Automation and Technical Assistance
2001

APhA supports the use of automation for prescription preparation and supports technical and personnel assistance for performing administrative duties and facilitating pharmacists' provision of pharmaceutical care.

(JAPhA NS41(5): Suppl 1:58 September/October 2001) (Reviewed 2004) (Reviewed 2007)(Reviewed 2008)(Reviewed 2013) (Reviewed 2015)

Medication Error Reporting
2001

1. APhA strongly encourages participation in error reporting at the organizational (pharmacy/institution) level and in other established state and national reporting programs.

2. APhA encourages direct error reporting by the individual(s) involved in the incident to ensure that the most relevant and detailed information is available for evaluation of the incident and for systems improvement.

3. Error reporting programs should regularly analyze and report information about the leading types and causes of errors reported to their system so that practitioners can utilize this information for systems enhancements and quality improvement.

4. APhA encourages state boards of pharmacy and other responsible entities to consider pharmacists participation in reporting of errors as a mitigating factor in determining any legal or disciplinary action related to the incident.

(JAPhA NS4(5):Suppl.1:S8 September/October 2001) (Reviewed 2007) (Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2014)

Pharmacist Counseling on Administration Devices
2001

APhA encourages patient and caregiver education by a pharmacist on the appropriate use of drug administration devices.

(JAPhA NS41(5):Suppl.1:S9 September/October 2001)(Reviewed 2007)(Reviewed 2012)(Reviewed 2017)

Regulatory Infringements on Professional Practice
2001,
1990

1. APhA, in cooperation with other national pharmacy organizations, shall take a leadership role in the establishment and maintenance of standards of practice for existing and emerging areas in the profession of pharmacy.

2. APhA encourages a cooperative process in the development, enforcement, and review of rules and regulations by agencies that affect any aspect of pharmacy practice, and this process must utilize the expertise of affected pharmacist specialists and their organizations.

3. APhA supports the right of pharmacists to exercise professional judgment in the implementation of standards of practice in their practice settings.

(Am Pharm NS30(6):45 June 1990) (JAPhA NS4(5)Suppl.1:S7 September/October, 2001)(Reviewed 2007)(Reviewed 2012)(Reviewed 2017)

Use of the phrase "Community Pharmacy"
2000

APhA supports use of the phrase "community pharmacy" rather than "retail pharmacy."

(JAPhA NS40(5):Suppl. 1:S8 September/October 2000) (Reviewed 2002) (Reviewed 2007)(Reviewed 2012)(Reviewed 2017)

Collaborative Practice Agreements
1997

1. APhA supports the establishment of collaborative practice agreements between pharmacists and other health care professionals designed to optimize patient care outcomes.

2. APhA shall promote the establishment and dissemination of guidelines and information to pharmacists and other health care professionals to facilitate the development of collaborative practice agreements.

(JAPhA NS37(4):459 July/August 1997) (Reviewed 2003)(Reviewed 2007)(Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2011)(Reviewed 2012)(Reviewed 2017)

Quality Assurance and Improvement in Pharmacy Practice
1996

1. APhA recommends that all pharmacists incorporate principles and tools available to continually improve the quality of patient care and management activities in their practices.

2. APhA recommends that content on principles and tools available to continually improve the quality of patient care and management practices be incorporated into pharmacy school curricula and into post-graduate education for pharmacists.

3. APhA supports appropriate evaluation and recognition of providers of pharmaceutical care.

(JAPhA NS36(6):395 June 1996) (Reviewed 2004) (Reviewed 2010)(Reviewed 2011)(Reviewed 2016)

Patient Counseling Environment
1993

APhA encourages the development and use of responsible and effective design of pharmacy facilities to allow for convenient, comfortable, and private pharmacist-patient communications.

(Am Pharm NS33(7):56 July 1993)(Reviewed 2002)(Reviewed 2007)(Reviewed 2012)(Reviewed 2017)

Emerging Technologies
1991

1. APhA supports programs to monitor the development of emerging technologies and their impact on the delivery of pharmaceutical care.

2. APhA supports education of pharmacists regarding emerging technology including their development and impact on the delivery of pharmaceutical care.

3. APhA supports the inclusion of pharmacists in the development and application of the emerging technologies in the delivery of pharmaceutical care.

(Am Pharm NS31(6):28 June 1991) (Reviewed 2004) (Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2014)

Mission of Pharmacy
1991

APhA affirms that the mission of pharmacy is to serve society as the profession responsible for the appropriate use of medications, devices, and services to achieve optimal therapeutic outcomes.

(Am Pharm NS31(6):29 June 1991) (Reviewed 2004) (Reviewed 2010) (Reviewed 2015)

Pharmaceutical Care and the Provision of Cognitive Services with Technologies
1991

1. APhA supports the utilization of technologies to enhance the pharmacist's ability to provide pharmaceutical care.

2. APhA believes that the use of technologies should not replace the pharmacist/patient relationship.

3. APhA emphasizes that maximizing patient benefit from technologies depends on the pharmacist/patient relationship.

4. APhA affirms that the utilization of technologies by pharmacists shall not compromise the patient's right to confidentiality.

(Am Pharm NS32(6):515 June 1991)(Reviewed 2001) (Reviewed 2007)(Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2013)(Reviewed 2014)

Drug Usage Evaluation (DUE)
1988

1. APhA supports drug usage evaluation (DUE) as one element of a quality assurance program for medication use.

2. APhA advocates that DUE must address enhancement of the quality of care as well as the control of costs.

3. APhA advocates pharmacists' participation along with other health care providers and consumers in the development, implementation, and administration of DUE programs.

4. APhA encourages further development of data collection systems to improve the extent and accuracy of DUE programs.

5. APhA maintains that the primary emphasis of DUE intervention should be educational with the goal of positive behavior modification.

(Am Pharm NS28(6):394 June 1988) (Reviewed 2004) (Reviewed 2010) (Reviewed 2015)

Stocking a Complete Inventory of Pharmaceutical Product
1983

APhA supports the rights and responsibilities of individual pharmacists to determine their inventory and dispensing practices based on patient need, practice economics, practice security, and professional judgment.

(Am Pharm NS23(6):52 June 1983) (Reviewed 2004) (Reviewed 2010) (Reviewed 2015)

Patient Access to Pharmacist-Prescribed Medications
2017

1. APhA asserts that pharmacists' patient care services and related prescribing by pharmacists help improve patient access to care, patient outcomes, and community health, and they align with coordinated, team-based care.

2. APhA supports increased patient access to care through pharmacist prescriptive authority models.

3. APhA opposes requirements and restrictions that impede patient access to pharmacist-prescribed medications and related services.

4. APhA urges prescribing pharmacists to coordinate care with patients' other health care providers through appropriate documentation, communication, and referral.

5. APhA advocates that medications and services associated with prescribing by pharmacists must be covered and compensated in the same manner as for other prescribers.

6. APhA supports the right of patients to receive pharmacist-prescribed medications at the pharmacy of their choice.

(JAPhA 57(4): 441 July/August 2017)

Labeling and Measurement of Oral Liquid Medications
2016

1. APhA supports the use of the milliliter (mL) as the standard unit of measure for oral liquid medications.

2. APhA encourages the mandatory use of leading zeros before the decimal point for amounts of less than one on prescription-container labels for oral liquid medications.

3. APhA discourages the use of trailing zeros after the decimal point for amounts greater than one on prescription-container labels for oral liquid medications.

4. APhA supports access to and universal availability of dosing devices with numeric graduations that correspond to the unit of measure that is on the container's label for oral liquid medications.

(JAPhA 56(4); 369 July/August 2016)

Medication-Assisted Treatment
2016

APhA supports expanding access to Medication Assisted Treatment (MAT), including but not limited to pharmacist-administered injection services for treatment and maintenance of substance use disorders that are based on a valid prescription.

(JAPhA 56(4); 370 July/August 2016)

Facility Design and Face-to-Face Communication
Patient Care and Medication Distribution Systems
2012,
1992

APhA encourages those responsible for practice environments without direct patient/pharmacist contact to use methods to enhance communication, face-to-face interaction, and patient care.

(Am Pharm NS32(6):515 June 1992) (Reviewed 2001) (Reviewed 2007) (JAPhA NS52(4) 459 July/August 2012)(Reviewed 2017)

Patient Counseling Environment
1993

APhA encourages the development and use of responsible and effective design of pharmacy facilities to allow for convenient, comfortable, and private pharmacist-patient communications.

(Am Pharm NS33(7):56 July 1993)(Reviewed 2002)(Reviewed 2007)(Reviewed 2012)(Reviewed 2017)

Pharmacy Technicians
Audits of Health Care Practices
2014

1. APhA recognizes that audits of health care practices, when used appropriately, may improve patient care and deter fraud, waste, and abuse.

2. APhA advocates for the use of standardized and efficient audit procedures with transparent criteria clearly communicated by the payor and readily accessible to providers in advance.

3. APhA advocates that audit processes should result in minimal disruption to practice work flow, minimal financial burden, and no impact on patient care.

4. APhA urges timely notification and scheduling of claims audits to minimize disruption of patient care delivery.

5. APhA supports the inclusion of education as a component of the audit process to improve documentation of services, meet payor requirements, and enhance the quality of care delivery.

6. APhA opposes incentive-based auditor compensation and the use of statistical methodologies, such as sample extrapolation, for determining the recoupment of funds from health care providers or health care organizations.

7. APhA advocates that audit reports include complete information listing audit discrepancies and appropriate guidelines for documenting and appealing these findings.

8. APhA advocates that pharmacy audits be performed in a professional manner by a pharmacist or certified pharmacy technician.

(JAPhA 54(4) 357 July/August 2014)

Pharmacy Technician Education and Training
2008

1. APhA reaffirms the 2005/2001/1996 Control of Distribution System policy, which states that APhA supports pharmacists' authority to control the distribution process and personnel involved and the responsibility for all completed medication orders, regardless of practice setting.

2. APhA supports nationally recognized standards and guidelines for the accreditation of pharmacy technician education and training programs.

3. APhA supports the continued growth of accredited education and training programs that develop qualified pharmacy technicians who will support pharmacists in ensuring patient safety and enhancing patient care.

4. APhA supports the following minimum requirements for all new pharmacy technicians by the year 2015: (a) successful completion of an accredited education and training program and (b) certification by the Pharmacy Technician Certification Board (PTCB).

5. APhA supports state board of pharmacy regulations that require pharmacy technicians to meet minimum standards of education, training, and certification. APhA also encourages state boards of pharmacy to develop a phase-in process for current pharmacy technicians.

(JAPhA NS48(4):470 July/August 2008)(Reviewed 2013)

Privacy of Pharmacists' Personal Information
2007

1. APhA supports protecting pharmacist, student pharmacist, and pharmacy technician personal information (e.g. home address, telephone, and personal email address).

2. APhA opposes legislative or regulatory requirements that mandate the publication of pharmacist, student pharmacist and pharmacy technician personal information (e.g. home address, telephone, and personal email address).

3. APhA encourages state boards of pharmacy to remove from their Web sites personal addresses, phone numbers, email, and other non-business contact information of pharmacists, student pharmacists, and pharmacy technicians.

(JAPhA NS45(5):580 September-October 2007)(Reviewed 2012)(Reviewed 2017)

Technician Licensure and Registration
2004,
1996

1. APhA recognizes the following definitions with regards to technician licensure and registration:

(a) Licensure: The process by which an agency of government grants permission an individual to engage in a given occupation upon finding that the applicant has attained the minimal degree of competency necessary to ensure that the public health, safety, and welfare will be reasonably well protected. Within pharmacy, a pharmacist is licensed by a State Board of Pharmacy.

(b) Registration: The process of making a list or being enrolled in an existing list.

(JAPhA NS36(6):396 June 1996)(Reviewed 2001)(JAPhA NS44(5):551 September/October 2004)(Reviewed 2008) (Reviewed 2010) (Reviewed 2015)

Automation and Technical Assistance
2001

APhA supports the use of automation for prescription preparation and supports technical and personnel assistance for performing administrative duties and facilitating pharmacists' provision of pharmaceutical care.

(JAPhA NS41(5): Suppl 1:58 September/October 2001) (Reviewed 2004) (Reviewed 2007)(Reviewed 2008)(Reviewed 2013) (Reviewed 2015)

Pharmacy Technician Education, Training, and Development
2017

1. APhA supports the following minimum requirements for all new pharmacy technicians: (a) Successful completion of an accredited or state-approved education and training program (b) Certification by the Pharmacy Technician Certification Board (PTCB).

2. APhA supports state board of pharmacy regulations that require pharmacy technicians to meet minimum standards of education, training, certification, and recertification. APhA encourages state boards of pharmacy to develop a phase-in process for current pharmacy technicians. APhA also encourages boards of pharmacy to delineate between pharmacy technicians and student pharmacists for the purposes of education, training, certification, and recertification.

3. APhA recognizes the important contribution and role of pharmacy technicians in assisting pharmacists and student pharmacists with the delivery of patient care.

4. APhA supports the development of resources and programs that promote the recruitment and retention of qualified pharmacy technicians.

5. APhA supports the development of continuing pharmacy education programs that enhance and support the continued professional development of pharmacy technicians.

6. APhA encourages the development of compensation models for pharmacy technicians that promote sustainable career opportunities

(JAPhA 57(4): 442 July/August 2017)

Poison Prevention
Poison Control, Information, and Treatment: Pharmacists' Responsibilities
2004,
1967

APhA recommends that pharmacists take a more active role in poison prevention and establishing poison information, poison treatment, and poison control centers where none exists.

(JAPhA NS7:323 June 1967) (JAPhA NS44(5):551 September/October 2004) (Reviewed 2010) (Reviewed 2015)

Poison Control, Information, and Treatment: Pharmacists' Responsibility
2004,
1968

1. APhA encourages pharmacists to familiarize themselves with the available resources on poisons and toxicology.

2. APhA encourages pharmacists to become familiar with the poison control, information and treatment center in their localities.

(JAPhA NS8:383 July 1968) (JAPhA NS44(5):551 September/October 2004) (Reviewed 2010) (Reviewed 2015)

Post-marketing Surveillance
Pharmacogenomics/Personalized Medicine
2010

1. APhA supports evidence-based personalized medicine, defined as the use of a person's clinical, genetic, genomic, and environmental information to select a medication or its dose, to choose a therapy, or to recommend preventive measures, as a means to improve patient safety and optimize health outcomes.

2. APhA promotes pharmacists as health care providers in the collection, use, interpretation, and application of pharmacogenomic data to optimize health outcomes.

3. APhA supports the development and implementation of programs, tools, and clinical guidelines that facilitate the translation and application of pharmacogenomic data into clinical practice.

4. APhA supports the inclusion of pharmacogenomic analysis in the drug development/approval and postmarketing surveillance processes.

(JAPhA NS50(4):471 July/August 2010) (Reviewed 2015)

Pharmacist's Role in Patient Safety
2009

1. It is APhA's position that patient safety initiatives must include pharmacists in leadership roles.

2. APhA encourages dissemination of best practices derived from nationally aggregated reporting data systems to pharmacists for the purpose of improving the medication use process and making informed decisions that directly impact patient safety and quality.

3. APhA encourages the profession of pharmacy to continually review and evaluate ways to enhance training, curricula, continuing education and accountability of pharmacists to improve patient safety.

4. APhA encourages risk management and post-marketing surveillance programs to be standardized and include infrastructures and compensation necessary to allow pharmacists to support these patient safety programs.

5. APhA supports the creation of voluntary, standardized and interoperable reporting systems for patient safety events to minimize barriers to pharmacist participation and to enable aggregation of data and improve quality of medication use systems. The system should be free, voluntary, non-punitive, easily accessible, and user friendly for all providers within the healthcare system.

6. APhA supports the elimination of hand-written prescriptions or medication orders.

(JAPhA NS49(4):492 July/August 2009) (Reviewed 2010) (Reviewed 2015)

Post-marketing Surveillance
1988

1. APhA supports and encourages the active participation of pharmacists in initiating, organizing, and maintaining post-marketing surveillance programs including, but not limited to, adverse drug reaction reporting and drug product problem reporting for drugs and other health care products.

2. APhA recognizes post-marketing surveillance as a process that systematically and comprehensively monitors the patterns of use and the harmful or beneficial effects (whether expected or unexpected) of prescription and non-prescription drugs and other health care products as they are used in the general population. The ultimate purpose of post-marketing surveillance is to develop and systematically disseminate information that can be used to provide safe and cost-effective drug therapy.

3. APhA supports the development of educational programs to foster the active involvement of pharmacy practitioners and students in post-marketing surveillance programs.

4. APhA encourages public and private collaboration in the funding and development of post-marketing surveillance methodologies and programs.

5. APhA encourages FDA and the pharmaceutical industry to actively involve pharmacists in spontaneous adverse reaction reporting systems and to provide appropriate and timely feedback on collected data.

(Am Pharm NS28(6):396 June 1988) (Reviewed 2004) (Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2010) (Reviewed 2015)

Prescribing Authority
Contemporary Pharmacy Practice
2017,
2012

1. APhA asserts that pharmacists should have the authority and support to practice to the full extent of their education, training, and experience in delivering patient care in all practice settings and activities.

2. APhA supports continuing efforts toward establishing a consistent and accurate perception of the contemporary role and practice of pharmacists by the general public, patients, and all persons and institutions engaged in health care policy, administration, payment, and delivery.

3. APhA supports continued collaboration with stakeholders to facilitate adoption of standardized practice acts, appropriate related laws, and regulations that reflect contemporary pharmacy practice.

4. APhA supports the establishment of multistate pharmacist licensure agreements to address the evolving needs of the pharmacy profession and pharmacist-provided patient care.

5. APhA urges the continued development of consensus documents, in collaboration with medical associations and other stakeholders, that recognize and support pharmacists' roles in patient care as health care providers.

6. APhA urges universal recognition of pharmacists as health care providers and compensation based on the level of patient care provided using standardized and future health care payment models.

(JAPhA NS52(4) 457 July/August 2012)(Reviewed 2016) (JAPhA 57(4): 441 July/August 2017)

Independent Practice of Pharmacists
2013,
2009

1. APhA recommends that health plans and payers contract with and appropriately compensate individual pharmacist providers for the level of care rendered without requiring the pharmacist to be associated with a pharmacy.

2. APhA supports adoption of state laws and rules pertaining to the independent practice of pharmacists when those laws and rules are consistent with APhA policy.

3. APhA, recognizing the positive impact that pharmacists can have in meeting unmet needs and managing medical conditions, supports the adoption of laws and regulations and the creation of payment mechanisms for appropriately trained pharmacists to autonomously provide patient care services, including prescribing, as part of the health care team.

(JAPhANS 49(4):492 July/August 2009)(Reviewed 2012)(JAPhA 53(4):366 July/August 2013)

Medication Selection by Pharmacists
2013,
1980

APhA supports the concept of a team approach to health care in which health care professionals perform those functions for which they are educated. APhA recognizes that the pharmacist is the expert on drugs and drug therapy on the health care team and supports a medication selection role for the pharmacist, based on the specific diagnosis of a qualified health care practitioner.

(Am Pharm NS20(7):62 July 1980) (Reviewed 2003) (Reviewed 2007) (Reviewed 2008) (Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2011)(Reviewed 2012)(JAPhA 53(4):366 July/August 2013)

Pharmacists' Authority to Select Medications
2012,
1987

APhA supports authority for pharmacists to select nonprescription and prescription medications as part of pharmacists' responsibilities to design, implement, and monitor drug regimens for patients, in consultation with practitioners when appropriate.

(Am Pharm NS27(6):422 June 1987)(Reviewed 2003) (Reviewed 2007)(Reviewed 2008)(Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2011)(JAPhA NS52(4) 460 July/August 2012)(JAPhA 53(4):366 July/August 2013)

Emergency Contraception
2003,
2000

APhA supports the voluntary involvement of pharmacists, in collaboration with other health care providers, in emergency contraceptive programs that include patient evaluation, patient education, and direct provision of emergency contraceptive medications.

(JAPhA NS40(5):Suppl.1:S8 September/October 2000) (JAPhA NS43(5):Suppl. 1:S58 September/October 2003) (Reviewed 2006) (Reviewed 2008) (Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2014)

The Pharmacist's Role in Therapeutic Outcomes
2003,
1992

1. APhA affirms that achieving optimal therapeutic outcomes for each patient is a shared responsibility of the health care team.

2. APhA recognizes that a primary responsibility of the pharmacist in achieving optimal therapeutic outcomes is to take an active role in the development and implementation of a therapeutic plan and in the appropriate monitoring of each patient.

(Am Pharm NS32(6):515 June 1992) (JAPhA NS43(5):Suppl. 1:S57 September/October 2003) (Reviewed 2007) (Reviewed 2009) (Reviewed 2010)(Reviewed 2011)(Reviewed 2016)(Reviewed 2016)

Patient Access to Pharmacist-Prescribed Medications
2017

1. APhA asserts that pharmacists' patient care services and related prescribing by pharmacists help improve patient access to care, patient outcomes, and community health, and they align with coordinated, team-based care.

2. APhA supports increased patient access to care through pharmacist prescriptive authority models.

3. APhA opposes requirements and restrictions that impede patient access to pharmacist-prescribed medications and related services.

4. APhA urges prescribing pharmacists to coordinate care with patients' other health care providers through appropriate documentation, communication, and referral.

5. APhA advocates that medications and services associated with prescribing by pharmacists must be covered and compensated in the same manner as for other prescribers.

6. APhA supports the right of patients to receive pharmacist-prescribed medications at the pharmacy of their choice.

(JAPhA 57(4): 441 July/August 2017)

Prescriptions And Prescription Orders
Adequacy of Directions for Use on Prescriptions and Prescription Orders
2011,
1995

1. APhA recommends that all professions with prescriptive authority address the issue of prescribers' responsibility for specific instructions to the pharmacist and the patient in all prescription orders.

2. APhA affirms the pharmacist's responsibility, as the patient's advocate, to obtain and communicate adequate directions for use of medications.

(Am Pharm NS35(6):37 June 1995) (Reviewed 2006)) (JAPhA NS51(4) 484;July/August 2011)(Reviewed 2016)(Reviewed 2017)

Prescription Order Requirements
2010,
2001

1. APhA supports the use of technology to facilitate the transmission of prescription order information from the prescriber to the pharmacist of the patient's choice at no additional cost to the pharmacy.

2. APhA supports the use of technology where appropriate standards for patient confidentiality and prescriber and pharmacist verification are established.

3. APhA supports the transmission of complete prescriber information on or with the prescription order that enables the pharmacist to readily identify and facilitate communication with the prescriber.

4. APhA supports the use of specific instructions with prescription orders. Use of potentially confusing terminology (such as "as directed", unclear use of Latin phrases, confusing abbreviations, etc.) should be avoided.

5. APhA supports the inclusion of the diagnosis or indication for use for which the medication is ordered on or with the transmission of the prescription order by use of standard diagnosis codes or within the directions for use. APhA further supports the inclusion of patient-specific information on or with the prescription order where appropriate.

6. APhA supports public education about the benefits and risks of technological advances in pharmacy practice.

(JAPhA NS41(5):Suppl.1:S8 September/October 2001) (Reviewed 2007)(Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2010)(Reviewed 2012)(Reviewed 2017)

Pharmacist's Role in Patient Safety
2009

1. It is APhA's position that patient safety initiatives must include pharmacists in leadership roles.

2. APhA encourages dissemination of best practices derived from nationally aggregated reporting data systems to pharmacists for the purpose of improving the medication use process and making informed decisions that directly impact patient safety and quality.

3. APhA encourages the profession of pharmacy to continually review and evaluate ways to enhance training, curricula, continuing education and accountability of pharmacists to improve patient safety.

4. APhA encourages risk management and post-marketing surveillance programs to be standardized and include infrastructures and compensation necessary to allow pharmacists to support these patient safety programs.

5. APhA supports the creation of voluntary, standardized and interoperable reporting systems for patient safety events to minimize barriers to pharmacist participation and to enable aggregation of data and improve quality of medication use systems. The system should be free, voluntary, non-punitive, easily accessible, and user friendly for all providers within the healthcare system.

6. APhA supports the elimination of hand-written prescriptions or medication orders.

(JAPhA NS49(4):492 July/August 2009) (Reviewed 2010) (Reviewed 2015)

Multiple Copy, Prescription Order Programs
1989

1. APhA opposes federally mandated, multiple copy, prescription order programs.

2. APhA supports the right of individual states to develop programs to prevent drug abuse and drug diversion.

(Am Pharm NS29(7):464 July 1989) (Reviewed 2001) (Reviewed 2006)(Reviewed 2011)(Reviewed 2015)

Indication on Prescription Labels and Medication Safety
2017

APhA supports pharmacists' authority to include a medication's purpose on prescription labels, on the basis of professional knowledge, judgment, and patient preference, using vocabulary that is appropriate for their unique practice sites and that addresses the needs of their specific patient populations.

APhA supports standardizing patient records and clinical decision support tools (including pharmacy dispensing systems) to collect, document, and utilize information regarding the patient's tobacco and nicotine use.

(JAPhA 57(4): 442 July/August 2017)

Public Health
Substance Use Disorder
2016

1. APhA supports legislative, regulatory, and private sector efforts that include pharmacists' input and that will balance patient-consumers' need for access to medications for legitimate medical purposes with the need to prevent the diversion, misuse, and abuse of medications.

2. APhA supports consumer sales limits of nonprescription drug products, such as methamphetamine precursors, that may be illegally converted into drugs for illicit use.

3. APhA encourages education of all personnel involved in the distribution chain of nonprescription products so they understand the potential for certain products, such as methamphetamine precursors, to be illegally converted into drugs for illicit use. APhA supports patient-consumer education of consequences of methamphetamine use, misuse, and abuse.

4. APhA supports public and private initiatives to fund treatment and prevention of substance use disorders.

5. APhA supports stringent enforcement of criminal laws against individuals who engage in drug trafficking.

(JAPhA 56(4); 369 July/August 2016)

Alcohol and Tobacco
The Use and Sale of Electronic Cigarettes (e-cigarettes)
2014

1. APhA opposes the sale of e-cigarettes and other vaporized nicotine products in pharmacies until such time that scientific data support the health and environmental safety of these products.

2. APhA opposes the use of e-cigarettes and other vaporized nicotine products in areas subject to current clean air regulations for combustible tobacco products until such time that scientific data support the health and environmental safety of these products.

3. APhA urges pharmacists to become more knowledgeable about e-cigarettes and other vaporized nicotine products.

4. APhA urges the FDA to require the full disclosure of all ingredients in e-cigarettes and other vaporized nicotine products in both the pre-use and vapor states.

(JAPhA 54(4) 358 July/August 2014)

Discontinuation of the Sale of Tobacco Products in Pharmacies and Facilities that Include Pharmacies
2010

1. APhA urges pharmacies and facilities that include pharmacies to discontinue the sale of tobacco products.

2. APhA urges the federal government and state governments to limit participation in government-funded prescription programs to pharmacies that do not sell tobacco products.

3. APhA urges state boards of pharmacy to discontinue issuing and renewing licenses to pharmacies that sell tobacco products and to pharmacies that are in facilities that sell tobacco products.

4. APhA urges colleges of pharmacy to only use pharmacies that do not sell tobacco products as experience sites for their students.

5. APhA urges the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE) to adopt the position that college-administered pharmacy experience programs should only use pharmacies that do not sell tobacco products.

6. APhA urges pharmacists and student pharmacists who are seeking employment opportunities to first consider positions in pharmacies that do not sell tobacco products.

(JAPhA NS40(4):471 July/August 2010) (Reviewed 2015)

Cigarette Sales in Pharmacies
2005,
1971

1. APhA recommends that tobacco products not be sold in pharmacies.

2. APhA recommends that state and local pharmacist associations develop similar policy statements for their membership and increase their involvement in public educational programs regarding the health hazards of smoking.

3. APhA recommends that individual pharmacists give particular attention to educating young people on the health hazards of smoking.

4. APhA recommends that APhA-ASP develop projects aimed at educating young people on the health hazards of smoking, such as visiting schools and conducting health education programs.

(JAPhA NS11:270 May 1971) (JAPhA NS45(5):555 September/October 2005) (Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2014)

Cigarette Sales in Pharmacies
2005,
1968

APhA recommends that pharmacists not allow smoking in their prescription departments.

(JAPhA NS8:382 July 1968) (JAPhA NS45(5):555-556 September/October 2005) (Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2014)

Exclusion of Alcohol and Tobacco Sales in Pharmacy Practice Settings
1996

APhA opposes the sale of tobacco products and non-medicinal alcoholic beverages in pharmacies.

(JAPhA NS36(6):396 June 1996) (Reviewed 2005) (Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2014)

Community Awareness and Education
Pharmacists' Responsibilities in Community Medication Awareness Programs
2014,
2005,
1986

1. APhA supports the development of comprehensive educational programs on the proper use and safe and environmentally responsible disposal of prescription and nonprescription medication.

2. Pharmacists should take a major educational responsibility in proactive programs which optimize therapeutic outcomes and minimize risks from inappropriate medication use.

(Am Pharm NS26(6):419 June 1986) (Reviewed 2005)(Reviewed 2009)(JAPhA 54(4) 358 July/August 2014

Use of Social Media
2014

1. APhA encourages the use of social media in ways that advance patient care and uphold pharmacists as trusted and accessible health care providers.

2. APhA supports the use of social media as a mechanism for the delivery of patient-specific care in a platform that allows for appropriate patient and provider protections and access to necessary health care information.

3. APhA supports the inclusion of social media education, including but not limited to appropriate use and professionalism, as a component of pharmacy education and continuing professional development.

4. APhA affirms that the patient's right to privacy and confidentiality shall not be compromised through the use of social media.

5. APhA urges pharmacists and student pharmacists to self-monitor their social media presence for professionalism and that posted clinical information is accurate and appropriate.

6. APhA advocates for continued development and utilization of social media by pharmacists and other health care professionals during public health emergencies.

(JAPhA 54(4) 357 July/August 2014)

The Role of Pharmacists in Public Health Awareness
2012,
2005,
1992

1. APhA recognizes the unique role and accessibility of pharmacist in public health.

2. APhA encourages pharmacists to provide services, education, and information on public health issues.

3. APhA encourages the development of public health programs for use by pharmacists and student pharmacists.

4. APhA should provide necessary information and materials for student pharmacists and pharmacists to carry out their role in disseminating public health information.

5. APhA encourages organizations to include pharmacists and student pharmacists in the development of public health programs.

(Am Pharm NS32(6):515 June 1992) (Reviewed 2005) (Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2010) (JAPhA NS52(4) 460 July/August 2012)(Reviewed 2017)

Medication Use in Schools
2000

APhA recognizes the role of pharmacists in improving the use of medications in schools and supports pharmacist activities to work with teachers, school nurses, parents, school administrators and other personnel to improve medication use in this environment. APhA recommends that pharmacists be involved in the development of guidelines for medication use in schools.

(JAPhA NS1(9):40 September/October 2000) (Reviewed 2005 )(Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2014)

HIV/AIDS
HIV Testing
2005,
1993

1. APhA opposes mandatory HIV testing of pharmacists, student pharmacists, and pharmacy personnel.

2. APhA supports voluntary and confidential HIV testing of pharmacists, student pharmacists, and pharmacy personnel, to facilitate early detection and disease intervention.

3. APhA supports training designed to foster compliance with infection control procedures outlined in current Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines for universal precautions and OSHA standards for blood-borne pathogens.

4. APhA encourages the development of support networks to assist HIV-positive health care professionals and students.

(Am Pharm NS33(7):54 July 1993) (JAPhA NS45(5):556 September/October 2005) (Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2014)

HIV/AIDS Education
2005,
1993

1. APhA encourages pharmacists and student pharmacists to become more knowledgeable about HIV/AIDS.

2. APhA supports the development of cooperative efforts among health care organizations and agencies to facilitate the collection, evaluation, and distribution of information on HIV/AIDS.

3. APhA supports the development of educational programs for pharmacists and student pharmacists that would enable them to assume a service role in the prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS.

(Am Pharm NS33(7):54 July 1993) (JAPhA NS45(5):556 September/October 2005) (Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2014)

Needle/Syringe Exchange Programs in the Prevention of the Spread of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Other Infections
2005,
1990

1. APhA supports distribution of educational materials on the risks of sharing needles/syringes with respect to the spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other blood-borne infectious diseases.

2. APhA supports the objective gathering and analysis of data and information about the effectiveness of pilot needle/syringe exchange programs in preventing the spread of HIV and other blood-borne infectious diseases.

3. APhA supports needle/syringe exchange programs when part of a comprehensive approach in the prevention of the spread of HIV and other blood-borne infections.

(Am Pharm NS30(6):45 June 1990) (JAPhA NS45(5):556 September/October 2005) (Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2014)

Sale of Sterile Syringes
1999

APhA encourages state legislatures and boards of pharmacy to revise laws and regulations to permit the unrestricted sale or distribution of sterile syringes and needles by or with the knowledge of a pharmacist in an effort to decrease the transmission of blood-borne diseases.

(JAPhA 39(4): 447 July/August 1999)(Reviewed 2003)(Reviewed 2006)(Reviewed 2008)(Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2014)

HIV Testing in Pregnant Women
1996

APhA encourages pharmacists to provide pharmaceutical care to women, including education about the availability and benefits of HIV testing in pregnancy to decrease the risk of HIV transmission to unborn children, APhA encourages pharmacists to provide education about the availability and benefits of HIV testing in pregnancy.

(Am Pharm NS36(6):395 June 1996) (Reviewed 2005) (Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2014)

Immunizations
Requiring Influenza Vaccination for All Pharmacy Personnel
2011

APhA supports an annual influenza vaccination as a condition of employment, training, or volunteering within an organization that provides pharmacy services or operates a pharmacy or pharmacy department (unless a valid medical or religious reason precludes vaccination).

(JAPhA NS51(4) 482;July/August 2011)(Reviewed 2012)(Reviewed 2017)

Pharmacy Personnel Immunization Rates
2007

1. APhA supports efforts to increase immunization rates of healthcare professionals, for the purposes of protecting patients, and urges all pharmacy personnel to receive all immunizations recommended by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) for healthcare workers.

2. APhA encourages employers to provide necessary immunizations to all pharmacy personnel.

1. APhA supports efforts to increase immunization rates of healthcare professionals, for the purposes of protecting patients, and urges all pharmacy personnel to receive all immunizations recommended by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) for healthcare workers.

2. APhA encourages employers to provide necessary immunizations to all pharmacy personnel.

3. APhA encourages federal, state, and local public health officials to recognize pharmacists as first responders (like physicians, nurses, police, etc.) and prioritize pharmacists to receive medications and immunizations.

(JAPhA NS45(5):580 September/October 2007) (Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2014)

Pharmacists' Role in Immunizations
2005,
2003,
1996

1. APhA encourages pharmacists to take an active role in achieving the goals of the Healthy People program regarding immunizations through: (a) advocacy, (b) contracting with other health care professionals, or (c) pharmacists administering vaccines to vulnerable patients.

2. APhA encourages the availability of all vaccines to all pharmacies in order to meet public health needs.

3. APhA supports the compensation of pharmacists for the administration of immunizations and the reimbursement for vaccine distribution.

4. APhA should facilitate the development of programs that educate pharmacists about their role in immunizations in public health.

(JAPhA NS36(6):395 June 1996) (JAPhA NS43(5):Suppl. 1:S57 September/October 2003) (JAPhA NS45(5):556 September/October 2005)(Reviewed 2007)(Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2012)(Reviewed 2014)

Other Public Health Issues
Drug Disposal Program Involvement
2017

APhA urges pharmacists to expand patient access to secure, convenient, and ecologically responsible drug disposal options, in accordance with the Secure and Responsible Drug Disposal Act of 2010, by implementing disposal programs they deem appropriate for their individual practice sites, patient care settings, and business models in an effort to reduce the amount of dispensed but unused prescription drug product available for diversion and misuse.

(JAPhA 57(4): 441 July/August 2017)

Support for Clinically-Validated Blood Pressure Measurement Devices
2017

1. APhA supports the use of manual and automated blood pressure measurement devices that are clinically validated initially and then undergo routine calibration to ensure accurate results.

2. APhA supports regulations and peer-reviewed clinical validation testing for automated blood pressure measurement devices.

3. APhA promotes public awareness of accuracy of automated blood pressure measurement devices.

(JAPhA 57(4): 442 July/August 2017)

Medication-Assisted Treatment
2016

APhA supports expanding access to Medication Assisted Treatment (MAT), including but not limited to pharmacist-administered injection services for treatment and maintenance of substance use disorders that are based on a valid prescription.

(JAPhA 56(4); 370 July/August 2016)

Point-of-Care Testing
2016

1. APhA recognizes the value of pharmacist-provided, point-of-care testing and related clinical services, and it promotes the provision of those tests and services in accordance with the Joint Commission of Pharmacy Practitioners Pharmacists' Patient Care Process.

2. APhA advocates for laws, regulations, and policies that enable pharmacist-provided, point-of-care testing and related clinical services that are consistent with the pharmacists' role in team-based care.

3. APhA opposes laws, regulations, and policies that create barriers to the tests that have been waived by the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) and that are administered and interpreted by pharmacists.

4. APhA encourages use of educational programming and resources to facilitate practice implementation of pharmacist-provided, point-of-care testing and related clinical services.

5. APhA supports patients taking active roles in the management of their health, including their ability to request and obtain pharmacist-provided, point-of-care tests and related clinical services.

6. APhA advocates for access to, coverage of, and payment for both pharmacist-provided, point-of-care tests and any related clinical services.

(JPhA 56(4); 369 July/August 2016)

Substance Use Disorder Education
2016,
2003,
1987

APhA supports comprehensive substance use disorder education, prevention, treatment, and recovery programs.

(Am Pharm. NS27(6):424 June 1987) (JAPhA NS43(5): Suppl. 1:S58 September/October 2003) (Reviewed 2006)(Reviewed 2011) (JAPhA 56(4); 369 July/August 2016)

Disaster Preparedness
2015

APhA encourages pharmacist involvement in surveillance, mitigation, preparedness, planning, response, and recovery related to terrorism and infectious diseases.

APhA encourages pharmacist involvement in surveillance, mitigation, preparedness, planning, response, and recovery related to terrorism and infectious diseases.

(JAPhA N55(4); 365 July/August 2015)

Prenatal and Perinatal Care and Maternal Health
2015

APhA supports pharmacists, in collaboration with the health care team, providing adequate and comprehensive prenatal and perinatal care for overall maternal and newborn health and wellness.

(JAPhA N55(4): 365 July/August 2015)

Role of the Pharmacist in the Care of Patients Using Cannabis
2015

1. APhA supports regulatory changes to further facilitate clinical research related to the clinical efficacy and safety associated with the use of cannabis and its various components.

2. APhA encourages health care provider education related to the clinical efficacy, safety, and management of patients using cannabis and its various components.

3. APhA advocates that the pharmacist collect and document information in the pharmacy patient profile about patient use of cannabis and its various components and provide appropriate patient counseling.

4. APhA supports pharmacist participation in furnishing cannabis and its various components when scientific data support the legitimate medical use of the products and delivery mechanisms, and federal, state, or territory laws or regulations permit pharmacists to furnish them.

5. APhA opposes pharmacist involvement in furnishing cannabis and its various components for recreational use.

(JAPhA N55(4): 365 July/August 2015)

Medication Take-Back/Disposal Programs
2013

1. APhA encourages pharmacist involvement in the planning and coordination of medication take-back programs for the purpose of disposal.

2. APhA supports increasing public awareness regarding medication take-back programs for the purpose of disposal.

3. APhA urges public and private stakeholders, including local, state, and federal agencies, to coordinate and create uniform, standardized regulations, including issues related to liability and sustainable funding sources, for the proper and safe disposal of unused medications.

4. APhA recommends ongoing medication take-back and disposal programs.

(JAPhA 53(4): 365 July/August 2013)

Pharmacists Providing Primary Care Services
2013

APhA advocates for the recognition and utilization of pharmacists as providers to address gaps in primary care.

(JAPhA 53(4): 365 July/August 2013)

Re-use of devices intended for "Single-Use"
2013,
2008

APhA opposes the reuse of devices intended for "single use" in the screening and management of patients consistent with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) guidelines.

(JAPhA NS48(4):471 July/August 2008) (JAPhA 53(4):366 July/August 2013)

Fluoridation of Water Supplies
2011,
1996

APhA reaffirms its 1954 position in support of appropriate fluoridation of water supplies and encourage pharmacists to assist in implementing such programs in their local communities.

(JAPhA NS6:293 June 1966) (Reviewed 2005) (Reviewed 2009)(JAPhA NS51(4) 484;July/August 2011)(Reviewed 2016)

The Role and Contributions of the Pharmacist in Public Health
2011

In concert with the American Public Health Association's (APHA) 2006 policy statement, "The Role of the Pharmacist in Public Health," APhA encourages collaboration with APHA and other public health organizations to increase pharmacists' participation in initiatives designed to meet global, national, regional, state, local, and community health goals.

(JAPhA NS51(4) 482;July/August 2011)(Reviewed 2012)(Reviewed 2016)

Medication Disposal
2009

1. APhA encourages appropriate public and private partnerships to accept responsibility for the costs of implementing safe medication disposal programs for consumers. Furthermore, APhA urges DEA to permit the safe disposal of controlled substances by consumers.

2. APhA encourages provision of patient-appropriate quantities of medication supplies to minimize unused medications and unnecessary medication disposal.

(JAPhA NS49(4):493 July/August 2009)(Reviewed 2012)(Reviewed 2013)

Re-Distribution of Previously Dispensed Medications
2007

1. As a matter of patient safety, APhA opposes the re-dispensing of a previously dispensed medication once it has been out of the control of a health care professional.

2. APhA supports a public awareness program to explain why the re-dispensing of a previously dispensed medication once it is out of the control of the healthcare professional is a public health safety concern.

(JAPhA NS45(5):580 September-October 2007)(Reviewed 2012)(Reviewed 2017)

WHO Policy on Infectious Diseases
2007

1. APhA supports the World Health Organization's (WHO's) requirements for accurate and expeditious reporting of infectious diseases from all countries, including unrestricted sharing of infectious substance samples with WHO.

2. APhA supports access to affordable vaccines in all countries.

(JAPhA NS45(5):580 September-October 2007)(Reviewed 2012)(Reviewed 2017)

Complementary and Alternative Medications
2005,
1997

1. APhA supports pharmacists using professional judgment to make informed decisions regarding the appropriateness of use or the sale of complementary and alternative medicines.

2. APhA shall assist pharmacists and student pharmacists in becoming knowledgeable about complementary and alternative medications to facilitate the counseling of patients regarding effectiveness, proper use, indications, safety and possible interactions.

(JAPhA NS37(4):July/August 1997) (Reviewed 2002) (JAPhA NS45(5):556-557 September/October 2005) (Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2014)

Emergency Preparedness
2005,
2002

APhA supports the continuing efforts of the Joint Commission of Pharmacy Practitioners working group on emergency preparedness and response to network with the Office of Homeland Security and with any other relevant governmental and/or military agency.

(JAPhA NS42(5): Suppl. 1:S61 September/October 2002)(JAPhA NS45(5):559 September/October 2005)(Reviewed 2006)(Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2014)

Health Literacy
2005,
2002

1. APhA encourages pharmacists and student pharmacists to increase their awareness of health literacy. Health literacy is the degree to which people can obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services they need to make appropriate health decisions.

2. APhA encourages pharmacists and student pharmacists to assess patients' health literacy and then implement appropriate communications and education.

3. APhA encourages the review of all patient information for health literacy appropriateness.

(JAPhA NS42(5):Suppl. 1:S60 September/October 2002) (JAPhA NS45(5):556 September/October 2005)(Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2014)

Prevention and Control of Sexual Transmitted Infections
2005,
1972

1. APhA calls upon all producers of prophylactic devices to include in or on their packaging adequate instructions for use so as to better ensure the effectiveness of the devices in the prevention of sexually transmitted infections.

2. APhA urges pharmacists to make more readily available to the public educational materials, prophylactic devices, and adequate instructions for use in combating sexually transmitted infections.

(JAPhA NS12:304 June 1972) (JAPhA NS45(5):557 September/October 2005) (Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2014)

Homeopathy
2002

1. APhA supports the demonstration of safety and efficacy of homeopathic products from adequate, well-designed scientific studies before pharmacists advocate or sell homeopathic products.

2. APhA recognizes patient autonomy regarding the use of homeopathic products. Pharmacists should educate patients who choose to use homeopathic products.

3. APhA supports the modification of the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act to require that homeopathic manufacturers provide evidence of efficacy and safety for all products, including products currently in the marketplace.

(JAPhA NS42(5):Suppl. 1:S60 September/October 2002) (Reviewed 2005) (Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2014)

Regulation of Dietary Supplements
2000

1. APhA shall work with Congress to modify the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act or enact other legislation to require that dietary supplement manufacturers provide evidence of efficacy and safety for all products, including products currently in the marketplace.

2. APhA supports the establishment and implementation of clear and effective enforcement policies to remove promptly unsafe or ineffective dietary supplement products from the marketplace.

3. APhA shall work with the FDA to improve dietary supplement product labeling to ensure full disclosure of all product components and their source with associated strengths and recommendations for use in specific patient populations.

4. APhA supports the development and enforcement of dietary supplement good manufacturing practices (GMPs) and compliance with USP/NF standards to assure quality, safe, contaminant-free products.

5. APhA encourages health care professionals, manufacturers, and consumers to report adverse health events associated with dietary supplements. APhA encourages the FDA to create a database with this information and make it available to all interested parties.

(JAPhA NS1(9):40 September/October 2000)(Reviewed 2005)(Reviewed 2007)(Reviewed 2012)(Reviewed 2017)

Reye Syndrome
1986

APhA supports all initiatives which enhance public education about the potential relationship between Reye Syndrome and oral and rectal salicylate-containing products, including settings where pharmacists are not available for consultation.

(Am Pharm NS26(6):419 June 1986) (Reviewed 2006)(Reviewed 2011)(Reviewed 2016)

Public Relations
Health Education: Selection of Pharmacist
2012,
2002,
1964

APhA supports education of consumers about the importance of selecting their personal pharmacist to assist them in the proper use of all medications and medical devices.

(JAPhA NS4:429 August 1964) (JAPhA NS42(5):Suppl. 1:S62 September/October 2002) (Reviewed 2007)(JAPhA NS52(4) 459 July/August 2012)(Reviewed 2017)

Promotion of Pharmacists' Value
2002,
1971

APhA encourages a coordinated effort by state and national associations, individual pharmacists, pharmacy employers and stakeholders to promote public understanding about the nature, value and necessity of pharmacists' services.

(JAPhA NS11:264 May 1971) (JAPhA NS42(5):Suppl. 1:S62 September/October 2002)(Reviewed 2007)(Reviewed 2012)(Reviewed 2017)

Promotion of Pharmaceutical Care
1999

1. APhA should continue to promote to the public the concepts and benefits of pharmaceutical care, differentiating pharmaceutical care practice from other pharmacy services.

2. APhA opposes the use of the term "pharmaceutical care" by any individual or entity unless the pharmaceutical care service provided by the individual or entity incorporates the concepts specified in the APhA Principles of Practice for Pharmaceutical Care.

(JAPhA NS39(4):447-48 July/August 1999)(Reviewed 2002) (Reviewed 2008)(Reviewed 2013)

Future of Pharmacy
1987

1. APhA supports programs which plan for the future of pharmacy.

2. APhA supports programs which encourage innovations in the practice of pharmacy in a changing health care environment.

3. APhA supports programs which reflect a positive image of pharmacists.

(Am Pharm NS27(6):422 June 1987) (Reviewed 2002) (Reviewed 2007)(Reviewed 2012)(Reviewed 2014)

Use of the Title "Pharmacist"
1986

APhA encourages the use of the title "Pharmacist" in communications and all public media.

(Am Pharm NS26(6):421 June 1986)(Reviewed 2007)(Reviewed 2012)(Reviewed 2017)

Quality Assurance
Audits of Health Care Practices
2014

1. APhA recognizes that audits of health care practices, when used appropriately, may improve patient care and deter fraud, waste, and abuse.

2. APhA advocates for the use of standardized and efficient audit procedures with transparent criteria clearly communicated by the payor and readily accessible to providers in advance.

3. APhA advocates that audit processes should result in minimal disruption to practice work flow, minimal financial burden, and no impact on patient care.

4. APhA urges timely notification and scheduling of claims audits to minimize disruption of patient care delivery.

5. APhA supports the inclusion of education as a component of the audit process to improve documentation of services, meet payor requirements, and enhance the quality of care delivery.

6. APhA opposes incentive-based auditor compensation and the use of statistical methodologies, such as sample extrapolation, for determining the recoupment of funds from health care providers or health care organizations.

7. APhA advocates that audit reports include complete information listing audit discrepancies and appropriate guidelines for documenting and appealing these findings.

8. APhA advocates that pharmacy audits be performed in a professional manner by a pharmacist or certified pharmacy technician.

(JAPhA 54(4) 357 July/August 2014)

Pharmacist-Patient-Prescriber-Payer Responsibilities in Appropriate Drug Use
2013,
2001,
1994

1. APhA advocates the following guidelines for pharmacist-patient-prescriber-payer responsibilities in appropriate drug use:

(a) Pharmacists' Responsibilities o Serve as a drug information resource; o Provide primary care; o Collaborate with the prescriber and patient in the design of cost-effective treatment regimens that produce beneficial outcomes; o Identify formulary or generic products as a means to reduce costs; o Intervene on behalf of the patient to identify alternate therapies; o Educate the patient about the treatment regimen and expectations, and verify the patient's understanding; o Identify, prevent, resolve, and report drug-related problems; o Document and communicate pharmaceutical care activities; o Monitor drug therapy in collaboration with the patient and prescriber to ensure compliance and assess therapeutic outcomes; o Maintain an accurate and efficient drug distribution system; and o Maintain proficiency through continuing education.

(b) Patients' Responsibilities o Assume a responsibility for wellness; o Understand the coverage policies of their benefit plan; o Share complete information with providers, including demographics and payment mechanism(s); o Share complete information regarding medical history, lifestyle, diet, use of prescription and over-the-counter medications, and other substances; o Participate in the design of the treatment regimen; o Understand the treatment regimen and expected outcomes; o Adhere to the treatment regimen; and o Alert prescribers and pharmacists to possible drug-related problems or changes in health status.

(c) Prescribers' Responsibilities o Assess and diagnose the patient; o Share pertinent information in collaboration with the pharmacist and patient in the design of cost-effective treatment regimens that produce beneficial outcomes; o Clearly communicate the treatment plan and its intended outcomes to the patient directly or in collaboration with the pharmacist; o Remain alert to the possible occurrence of drug-related problems and initiate needed changes in therapy; o Collaborate with the patient and the pharmacist in drug therapy monitoring; and o Maintain proficiency through continuing medical education.

(d) Payers' Responsibilities o Determine the objectives and desired benefits of pharmacy service; o Design the coverage with patient and provider input using products and services to produce beneficial outcomes; o Contract with providers on the basis of outcomes and efficient use of resources; o Adopt efficient, clear, and uniform administrative processes; o Communicate requirements of compensation for levels of care; o Educate patients and providers about current eligibility and benefit information; o Expeditiously process payments; and o Be responsive to advances in contemporary practice.

(Am Pharm NS34(6):57 June 1994)(JAPhA NS41(5):Suppl.1:S9 September/October 2001)(Reviewed 2008)(Reviewed 2010)(Reviewed 2011)(Reviewed 2012)(JAPhA 53(4):367 July/August 2013)

Measuring the Quality of Patient Care
2011,
1995

1. APhA believes that quality assessment measures must evaluate the accessibility, acceptability, and technical quality of pharmacy services, as well as the patient-centered and economic outcomes of patient care. These measures must consider the perspectives of patients, pharmacists, and other health care providers.

2. APhA believes quality assessment measures of patient care should be tested for validity and reliability in various pharmacy practice settings prior to widespread application.

3. APhA should develop tools and/or programs that enable pharmacists to apply quality assessment measures to their delivery of patient care.

4. APhA should promote efforts to educate patients, pharmacists, other health care providers, payers, policy makers, and other interested parties on the appropriate use of quality assessment measures to evaluate and improve the delivery of patient care.

(Am Pharm NS35(6):37 June 1995) (Reviewed 2006 - Statement 1 archived in 2006)((JAPhA NS51(4) 484;July/August 2011)(Reviewed 2016)

Pharmacy Practice Accreditation
2011

1. APhA should lead the creation of consensus-based, pharmacy profession-developed accreditation standards and methods of evaluation to optimize the quality and safety of patient care and promote best practices.

2. APhA urges that accrediting bodies use profession-developed standards for pharmacy.

3. APhA supports only those pharmacy accreditation processes that are voluntary, transparent, consensus-based, reasonably executable, and affordable, while avoiding duplication and barriers to patient care.

4. APhA opposes mandatory pharmacy accreditation.

5. APhA shall assume the leadership role among stakeholders on the design and implementation of an appropriate process for any new pharmacy accrediting program.

6. APhA supports the appropriate use of data gathered from pharmacy practice monitoring processes to facilitate the advancement of pharmacy practice and quality of patient care.

(JAPhA NS51(4) 482;July/August 2011)(Reviewed 2016)

Pharmacist's Role in Patient Safety
2009

1. It is APhA's position that patient safety initiatives must include pharmacists in leadership roles.

2. APhA encourages dissemination of best practices derived from nationally aggregated reporting data systems to pharmacists for the purpose of improving the medication use process and making informed decisions that directly impact patient safety and quality.

3. APhA encourages the profession of pharmacy to continually review and evaluate ways to enhance training, curricula, continuing education and accountability of pharmacists to improve patient safety.

4. APhA encourages risk management and post-marketing surveillance programs to be standardized and include infrastructures and compensation necessary to allow pharmacists to support these patient safety programs.

5. APhA supports the creation of voluntary, standardized and interoperable reporting systems for patient safety events to minimize barriers to pharmacist participation and to enable aggregation of data and improve quality of medication use systems. The system should be free, voluntary, non-punitive, easily accessible, and user friendly for all providers within the healthcare system.

6. APhA supports the elimination of hand-written prescriptions or medication orders.

(JAPhA NS49(4):492 July/August 2009) (Reviewed 2010) (Reviewed 2015)

Continuing Professional Development
2005

1. APhA supports continuing professional development, a self-directed, individualized, systematic approach to life-long learning, to support pharmacist's efforts to maintain professional competence in their practice.

2. APhA should work with appropriate organizations to provide self-assessment and plan development tools. APhA shall help identify and facilitate access to quality educational programs.

3. Employers should foster and support pharmacist participation in continuing professional development.

4. Continuing professional development is a learning process that requires full participation to achieve desired individual outcomes. To facilitate that participation, each pharmacist controls disclosure of their individual assessments and outcomes.

(JAPhA NS45(5):554 September/October 2005) (Reviewed 2006) (Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2014)

Credentialing and Pharmaceutical Care
2001

1. APhA should continue to assist in the unification of the profession and the development of a national strategy by its continued support of the Council on Credentialing in Pharmacy as the body responsible for the leadership, standards, public information and coordination of the professions voluntary credentialing programs.

2. APhA, in conjunction and cooperation with the Council on Credentialing and other national associations, should provide competence-based material and testing via technology, such as the APhA Web site and state association Web sites, to further the profession's self-assessment.

3. APhA, in conjunction and cooperation with the Council on Credentialing and other national associations, should develop the necessary products and programs to educate the public, insurers, and health professionals on credentialing and make them available to state associations at cost.

4. APhA supports the development, on a continuing basis, of programs such as Project ImPACT, which provide the opportunity to promote the profession and its impact on clinical, economic, and humanistic patient outcomes.

(JAPhA NS41(5):Suppl.1:S8 Sept/Oct.2001) (Reviewed 2003) (Reviewed 2005) (Reviewed 2006) (Reviewed 2008) (Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2014)

Quality Assurance and Improvement in Pharmacy Practice
1996

1. APhA recommends that all pharmacists incorporate principles and tools available to continually improve the quality of patient care and management activities in their practices.

2. APhA recommends that content on principles and tools available to continually improve the quality of patient care and management practices be incorporated into pharmacy school curricula and into post-graduate education for pharmacists.

3. APhA supports appropriate evaluation and recognition of providers of pharmaceutical care.

(JAPhA NS36(6):395 June 1996) (Reviewed 2004) (Reviewed 2010)(Reviewed 2011)(Reviewed 2016)

Preventing Dispensing-Related Problems
1994

1. APhA encourages the development of practice guidelines to identify, resolve, and prevent dispensing-related problems.

2. APhA supports the development of electronic systems that confidentially collect information to record dispensing-related problems.

3. APhA believes that pharmacists have a professional responsibility to document and report dispensing-related problems in an ongoing effort to improve the quality of the drug distribution system.

4. APhA will assume a leadership role in the gathering, analysis, and interpretation of the aggregate data regarding dispensing-related problems, and the dissemination of the results, which will enable pharmacists to further improve medication distribution.

(Am Pharm NS34(6):56 June 1994) (Reviewed 2001) (Reviewed 2007) (Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2014)

Record Systems
Confidentiality of Computer-generated Patient Records
2015,
1994

APhA, in cooperation with the National Council of Prescription Drug Programs, Inc. (NCPDP) and similar groups, shall encourage the development and implementation of uniform, prescription, computer software standards to prevent unauthorized access to confidential patient records.

(Am Pharm NS34(6):60 June 1994) (Reviewed 2005), (Reviewed 2009) (Reviewed 2010) (2015)

Integrated Nationwide Prescription Drug Monitoring Program
2015

1. APhA supports nationwide integration of prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMP) that incorporate federal, state, and territory databases for the purpose of providing health care professionals with accurate and real-time information to assist in clinical decision making when providing patient care services related to controlled substances.

2. APhA supports pharmacist involvement in the development of uniform standards for an integrated nationwide prescription drug monitoring program (PDMP) that includes the definition of authorized registered users, documentation, reporting requirements, system response time, security of information, minimum reporting data sets, and standard transaction format.

3. APhA supports mandatory prescription drug monitoring program (PDMP) enrollment by all health care providers, mandatory reporting by all those who dispense controlled substances, and appropriate system query by registrants during the patient care process related to controlled substances.

4. APhA advocates for the development of seamless workflow integration systems that would enable consistent use of a nationwide prescription drug monitoring program (PDMP) by registrants to facilitate prospective drug review as part of the patient care process related to controlled substances.

5. APhA advocates for continuous, sustainable federal funding sources for practitioners and system operators to utilize and maintain a standardized integrated and real-time nationwide prescription drug monitoring program (PDMP).

6. APhA supports the use of interprofessional advisory boards, that include pharmacists, to coordinate collaborative efforts for (a) compiling, analyzing, and using prescription drug monitoring program (PDMP) data trends related to controlled substance misuse, abuse, and/or fraud; (b) providing focused provider education and patient referral to treatment programs; and (c) supporting research activities on the impact of PDMPs.

7. APhA supports education and training for registrants about a nationwide prescription drug monitoring program (PDMP) to ensure proper data integrity, use, and confidentiality.

(JAPhA N55(4): 364 July/August 2015)

Interoperability of Communications Among Health Care Providers to Improve Quality of Patient Care
2015

1. APhA supports the establishment of secure, portable, and interoperable electronic patient health care records.

2. APhA supports the engagement of pharmacists with other stakeholders in the development and implementation of multidirectional electronic communication systems to improve patient safety, enhance quality care, facilitate care transitions, increase efficiency, and reduce waste.

3. APhA advocates for the inclusion of pharmacists in the establishment and enhancement of electronic health care information technologies and systems that must be interoperable, HIPAA compliant, integrated with claims processing, updated in a timely fashion, allow for data analysis, and do not place disproportionate financial burden on any one health care provider or stakeholder.

4. APhA advocates for pharmacists and other health care providers to have access to view, download and transmit electronic health records. Information shared among providers using a health information exchange should utilize a standardized secure interface based on recognized international health record standards for the transmission of health information.

5. APhA supports the integration of federal, state, and territory health information exchanges into an accessible, standardized, nationwide system.

6. APhA opposes business practices and policies that obstruct the electronic access and exchange of patient health information because these practices compromise patient safety and the provision of optimal patient care.

7. APhA advocates for the development of systems that facilitate and support electronic communication between pharmacists and prescribers concerning patient adherence, medication discontinuation, and other clinical factors that support quality care transitions.

8. APhA supports the development of education and training programs for pharmacists, student pharmacists, and other health care professionals on the appropriate use of electronic health records to reduce errors and improve the quality and safety of patient care.

9. APhA supports the creation and non-punitive application of a standardized, interoperable system for voluntary reporting of errors associated with the use of electronic health care information technologies and systems to enable aggregation of protected data and develop recommendations for improved quality.

(JAPhA N55(4): 364 July/August 2015)

Patient Information
2015,
1993

1. APhA shall facilitate the development, dissemination, and use of an information system that documents the components of comprehensive medication management services.

2. APhA encourages development of quality assurance standards that guarantee the integrity and accuracy of information included in proprietary and non-proprietary information systems.

(Am Pharm NS33(7):53 July 1993) (Reviewed 2005) (Reviewed 2009) (Reviewed 2010)(2015)

Ensuring Access to Pharmacists' Services
2013

1. Pharmacists are health care providers who must be recognized and compensated by payers for their professional services.

2. APhA actively supports the adoption of standardized processes for the provision, documentation, and claims submission of pharmacists' services.

3. APhA supports pharmacists' ability to bill payers and be compensated for their services consistent with the processes of other health care providers.

4. APhA supports recognition by payers that compensable pharmacist services range from generalized to focused activities intended to improve health outcomes based on individual patient needs.

5. APhA advocates for the development and implementation of a standardized process for verification of pharmacists' credentials as a means to foster compensation for pharmacist services and reduce administrative redundancy.

6. APhA advocates for pharmacists' access and contribution to clinical and claims data to support treatment, payment, and health care operations.

7. APhA actively supports the integration of pharmacists' service level and outcome data with other health care provider and claims data.

(JAPhA 53(4): 365 July/August 2013)

E-prescribing Standardization
2010

1. APhA supports the standardization of user interfaces to improve quality and reduce errors unique to e-prescribing.

2. APhA supports reporting mechanisms and research efforts to evaluate the effectiveness, safety, and quality of e-prescribing systems, computerized prescriber order entry (CPOE) systems, and the e-prescriptions that they produce, in order to improve health information technology systems and, ultimately, patient care.

3. APhA supports the development of financial incentives for pharmacists and prescribers to provide high quality e-prescribing activities.

4. APhA supports the inclusion of pharmacists in quality improvement and meaningful use activities related to the use of e-prescribing and other health information technology that would positively impact patient health outcomes.

(JAPhA NS40(4):471 July/August 2010)(Reviewed 2012)(Reviewed 20..14) (Reviewed 2015)

Personal Health Records
2010

1. APhA supports patient utilization of personal health records, defined as records of health-related information managed, shared, and controlled by the individual, to facilitate self-management and communication across the continuum of care.

2. APhA urges both public and private entities to identify and include pharmacists and other stakeholders in the development of personal health record systems and the adoption of standards, including but not limited to terminology, security, documentation, and coding of data contained within personal health records.

3. APhA supports the development, implementation, and maintenance of personal health record systems that are accessible and searchable by pharmacists and other health care providers, interoperable and portable across health information systems, customizable to the needs of the patient, and able to differentiate information provided by a health care provider and the patient.

4. APhA supports pharmacists taking the leadership role in educating the public about the importance of maintaining current and accurate medication-related information within personal health records.

(JAPhA NS40(4):471 July/August 2010)(Reviewed 2013)(Reviewed 2014) (Reviewed 2015)

Health Information Technology
2009

1. APhA supports the delivery of informatics education within pharmacy schools and continuing education programs to improve patient care, understand interoperability among systems, understand where to find information, increase productivity, and improve the ability to measure and report the value of pharmacists in the health care system.

2. APhA urges that pharmacists have read/write access to electronic health record data for the purposes of improving patient care and medication use outcomes.

3. APhA encourages inclusion of pharmacists in the definition, development, and implementation of health information technologies for the purpose of improving the quality of patient-centric health care.

4. APhA urges public and private entities to include pharmacist representatives in the creation of standards, the certification of systems, and the integration of medication use systems with health information technology.

(JAPhA NS49(4):492 July/August 2009) (Reviewed 2010)(Reviewed 2013)(Reviewed 2014) (Reviewed 2015)

Billing and Documentation of Medication Therapy Management (MTM) Services
2008

1. APhA encourages the development and use of a system for billing of MTM services that: (a) includes a standardized data set for transmission of billing claims; (b) utilizes a standardized process that is consistent with claim billing by other healthcare providers; (c) utilizes a billing platform that is accepted by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) and is compliant with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)

2. APhA supports the pharmacist's or pharmacy's choice of a documentation system that allows for transmission of any MTM billing claim and interfaces with the billing platform used by the insurer or payer.

3. APhA encourages pharmacists to use the American Medical Association (AMA) Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes for billing of MTM services.

4. APhA supports efforts to further develop CPT codes for billing of pharmacists' services, through the work of the Pharmacist Services Technical Advisory Coalition (PSTAC).

(JAPhA NS48(4):471 July/August 2008) (Reviewed 2010) (Reviewed 2015)(Reviewed 2016)

Documentation
2005,
1993

1. APhA encourages development of systems that document review of patient therapy, the type and intensity of services provided, and the result or outcome of the services.

2. APhA believes that systems of payment and documentation must be compatible with contemporary computer systems used by providers and payers and should emphasize administrative efficiency.

(Am Pharm NS33(7):54 July 1993) (JAPhA NS45(5):560 September/October 2005) (Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2014)

Access and Contribution to Health Records
1998

1. APhA urges the integration of pharmacy-based patient data into patient health records to facilitate the delivery of integrated care.

2. APhA recognizes pharmacists' need for patient health care data and information and supports their access and contribution to patient health records.

3. APhA supports public policies that protect the patient's privacy yet preserve access to personal health data for research when the patient has consented to such research or when the patient's identity is protected.

4. APhA encourages interdisciplinary discussion regarding accountability and oversight for appropriate use of health information.

(JAPhA 38(4): 417 July/August 1998)(Reviewed 2005) (Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2010)(Reviewed 2013)(Reviewed 2014) (Reviewed 2015)

Confidentiality of Patient Data
1996

1. APhA supports the establishment of uniform national privacy protection standards for personally identifiable health information. These standards should:

(a) include provisions for patients to access and request modification of their health information, and disclosure of who will have access to the information; (b) establish broad privacy protections for the individual patient without compromising patient care or creating an excessive administrative burden for health care providers; and (c) make a distinction between the clinical information required for communication among health care professionals, and the administrative or financial information required by others (e.g., claims processors and payers).

(JAPhA NS36(6):396 June 1996) (Reviewed 2005) (Reviewed 2009) (Reviewed 2010)

Implications of On-line Prospective DUR on the Application of Pharmacists' Scientific and Clinical Judgments
1994

1. APhA recognizes that effective drug utilization review (prospective, concurrent, retrospective), as a component of pharmaceutical care, depends upon complete and accurate patient information.

2. APhA advocates eliminating the economic and operational obstacles pharmacists encounter when conducting drug utilization review for optimal patient care.

3. APhA supports utilization of universal and comprehensive standards for On-line Realtime Drug Utilization Review (ORDUR).

4. APhA encourages the development of a standardized method of electronic transfer of patient medical data between all health professionals involved in the care of a patient.

(Am Pharm NS34(6):58 June 1994) (Reviewed 2005) (Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2014)

Patient Medication Program
1983

1. APhA shall strongly and actively encourage pharmacists to be available for and provide patient consultation, including written drug information, when requested or professionally appropriate.

2. APhA supports patient information programs that include reference to seeking medication information from pharmacists and does not endorse programs which, by ignoring the professional capabilities of pharmacists, may limit the patient's ability to receive needed drug information and consultation.

(Am Pharm NS23(6):53 June 1983) (Reviewed 2005) (Reivsed 2009)(Reviewed 2014)

Reimbursement And Compensation
Contemporary Pharmacy Practice
2017,
2012

1. APhA asserts that pharmacists should have the authority and support to practice to the full extent of their education, training, and experience in delivering patient care in all practice settings and activities.

2. APhA supports continuing efforts toward establishing a consistent and accurate perception of the contemporary role and practice of pharmacists by the general public, patients, and all persons and institutions engaged in health care policy, administration, payment, and delivery.

3. APhA supports continued collaboration with stakeholders to facilitate adoption of standardized practice acts, appropriate related laws, and regulations that reflect contemporary pharmacy practice.

4. APhA supports the establishment of multistate pharmacist licensure agreements to address the evolving needs of the pharmacy profession and pharmacist-provided patient care.

5. APhA urges the continued development of consensus documents, in collaboration with medical associations and other stakeholders, that recognize and support pharmacists' roles in patient care as health care providers.

6. APhA urges universal recognition of pharmacists as health care providers and compensation based on the level of patient care provided using standardized and future health care payment models.

(JAPhA NS52(4) 457 July/August 2012)(Reviewed 2016) (JAPhA 57(4): 441 July/August 2017)

Audits of Health Care Practices
2014

1. APhA recognizes that audits of health care practices, when used appropriately, may improve patient care and deter fraud, waste, and abuse.

2. APhA advocates for the use of standardized and efficient audit procedures with transparent criteria clearly communicated by the payor and readily accessible to providers in advance.

3. APhA advocates that audit processes should result in minimal disruption to practice work flow, minimal financial burden, and no impact on patient care.

4. APhA urges timely notification and scheduling of claims audits to minimize disruption of patient care delivery.

5. APhA supports the inclusion of education as a component of the audit process to improve documentation of services, meet payor requirements, and enhance the quality of care delivery.

6. APhA opposes incentive-based auditor compensation and the use of statistical methodologies, such as sample extrapolation, for determining the recoupment of funds from health care providers or health care organizations.

7. APhA advocates that audit reports include complete information listing audit discrepancies and appropriate guidelines for documenting and appealing these findings.

8. APhA advocates that pharmacy audits be performed in a professional manner by a pharmacist or certified pharmacy technician.

(JAPhA 54(4) 357 July/August 2014)

Ensuring Access to Pharmacists' Services
2013

1. Pharmacists are health care providers who must be recognized and compensated by payers for their professional services.

2. APhA actively supports the adoption of standardized processes for the provision, documentation, and claims submission of pharmacists' services.

3. APhA supports pharmacists' ability to bill payers and be compensated for their services consistent with the processes of other health care providers.

4. APhA supports recognition by payers that compensable pharmacist services range from generalized to focused activities intended to improve health outcomes based on individual patient needs.

5. APhA advocates for the development and implementation of a standardized process for verification of pharmacists' credentials as a means to foster compensation for pharmacist services and reduce administrative redundancy.

6. APhA advocates for pharmacists' access and contribution to clinical and claims data to support treatment, payment, and health care operations.

7. APhA actively supports the integration of pharmacists' service level and outcome data with other health care provider and claims data.

(JAPhA 53(4): 365 July/August 2013)

Independent Practice of Pharmacists
2013,
2009

1. APhA recommends that health plans and payers contract with and appropriately compensate individual pharmacist providers for the level of care rendered without requiring the pharmacist to be associated with a pharmacy.

2. APhA supports adoption of state laws and rules pertaining to the independent practice of pharmacists when those laws and rules are consistent with APhA policy.

3. APhA, recognizing the positive impact that pharmacists can have in meeting unmet needs and managing medical conditions, supports the adoption of laws and regulations and the creation of payment mechanisms for appropriately trained pharmacists to autonomously provide patient care services, including prescribing, as part of the health care team.

(JAPhANS 49(4):492 July/August 2009)(Reviewed 2012)(JAPhA 53(4):366 July/August 2013)

Revisions to the Medication Classification System
2013

1. APhA supports the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) efforts to revise the drug classification paradigms for prescription and nonprescription medications to allow greater access to certain medications under conditions of safe use while maintaining patients' relationships with their pharmacists and other health care providers.

2. APhA supports the implementation or modification of state laws to facilitate pharmacists' implementation and provision of services related to a revised drug classification system.

3. APhA supports a patient care delivery model built on coordination and communication between pharmacists and other health care team members in the evaluation and management of care delivery.

4. APhA affirms that pharmacists are qualified to provide clinical interventions on medications under FDA's approved conditions of safe use.

5. APhA urges manufacturers, FDA, and other stakeholders to include pharmacists' input in the development and adoption of technology and standardized processes for services related to medications under FDA's defined conditions of safe use.

6. APhA supports the utilization of best practices, treatment algorithms, and clinical judgment of pharmacists and other health care providers to guide the evaluation and management of care delivery related to medications under FDA's approved conditions of safe use.

7. APhA encourages the inclusion of medications and services provided under FDA's defined conditions of safe use within health benefit coverage.

8. APhA supports compensation of pharmacists and other health care professionals for the provision of services related to FDA's defined conditions of safe use programs.

(JAPhA 53(4): 365 July/August 2013)

Catastrophic Illness: Coverage for Pharmacist Services Included
2005,
1987

1. APhA supports comprehensive, catastrophic illness insurance coverage that recognizes the essential need for pharmaceutical products and pharmacist services in all patient care environments, including the home.

2. APhA encourages inclusion of pharmacist services and the most efficient and readily accessible system of drug delivery in any insurance coverage for catastrophic illness that may be enacted.

(Am Pharm NS27(6):422 June 1987) (JAPhA NS45(5):557 September/October 2005) (Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2014)

Pharmacists and Home Health Care
2005,
1985

1. APhA supports establishment of pharmacist consulting services for home care.

2. Medicaid and other third-party programs should recognize the consulting role of the pharmacist in reducing the misuse of drugs and maximizing their therapeutic effectiveness through fair and equitable reimbursement for consulting functions which is not tied to the provision of medications.

3. Medicaid and other third-party programs also should reimburse pharmacists for innovative packaging and services that will maximize adherence, increase the opportunity for drug utilization review, and better meet the informational needs of the patient and the care giver.

(Am Pharm NS25(5):51 May 1985) (JAPhA NS45(5):557 September/October 2005) (Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2012)(Reviewed 2014)

Pharmacists' Role in Immunizations
2005,
2003,
1996

1. APhA encourages pharmacists to take an active role in achieving the goals of the Healthy People program regarding immunizations through: (a) advocacy, (b) contracting with other health care professionals, or (c) pharmacists administering vaccines to vulnerable patients.

2. APhA encourages the availability of all vaccines to all pharmacies in order to meet public health needs.

3. APhA supports the compensation of pharmacists for the administration of immunizations and the reimbursement for vaccine distribution.

4. APhA should facilitate the development of programs that educate pharmacists about their role in immunizations in public health.

(JAPhA NS36(6):395 June 1996) (JAPhA NS43(5):Suppl. 1:S57 September/October 2003) (JAPhA NS45(5):556 September/October 2005)(Reviewed 2007)(Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2012)(Reviewed 2014)

Reimbursement for Unapproved (Off-label) Uses of FDA-Approved Drug Products
2005,
1990

APhA supports coverage of FDA-approved drugs and pharmacist services connected with the delivery of such drugs by government and other third-party payers when used rationally for indications other than those specified in the product labeling.

(Am Pharm NS30(6):45 June 1990) (JAPhA NS45(5):557 September/October 2005) (Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2014)

Pharmacists' Services
1993

1. APhA supports development of pharmacy payment systems that include reimbursement of the cost of any medication or device provided; the cost of preparing the medication or device; the costs of administrative services; return on capital investment; and payment for both the dispensing-related and non-dispensing-pharmacy services.

2. APhA believes that appropriate incentives for the pharmacist providing care should be part of any payment system.

(Am Pharm NS33(7):53 July 1993) (Reviewed 2005) (Reviewed 2007) (Reviewed 2009) (Reviewed 2010)(Reviewed 2011)(Reviewed 2012)(Reviewed 2017)

Pharmacists' Role Within Value-based Payment Models
2017

1. APhA supports value-based payment models that include pharmacists as essential health care team members and that promote coordinated care, improved health outcomes, and lower total costs of health care.

2. APhA encourages the development and implementation of meaningful, consistent process-based and outcomes-based quality measures that allow attribution of pharmacist impact within value-based payment models.

3. APhA advocates for mechanisms that recognize and compensate pharmacists for their contributions toward meeting goals of quality and total costs of care in value-based payment models, separate and distinct from the full product and dispensing cost reimbursement.

4. APhA advocates that pharmacists must have real-time access to and exchange of electronic health record data within value-based payment models in order to achieve optimal health and medication-related outcomes.

5. APhA supports education, training, and resources that help pharmacists transform and integrate their practices with value-based payment models and programs.

(JAPhA 57(4): 441 July/August 2017)

Pharmacy Performance Networks
2017

1. APhA supports performance networks that improve patient care and health outcomes, reduce costs, use pharmacists as an integral part of the health care team, and include evidence-based quality measures.

2. APhA urges collaboration between pharmacists and payers to develop distinct, transparent, fair, and equitable payment strategies for achieving performance measures associated with providing pharmacists' patient care services that are separate from the reimbursement methods used for product fulfillment.

3. APhA advocates for prospective notification of evidence-based quality measures that will be used by a performance network to assess provider and practice performance. Furthermore, updates on provider and practice performance against these measures should be provided in a timely and regular manner.

4. APhA supports pharmacists' professional autonomy to determine processes that improve performance on evidence-based quality measures.

(JAPhA 57(4): 441 July/August 2017)

Federal Programs
Pharmacists as Providers Under the Social Security Act
2016,
2011

APhA supports changes to the Social Security Act to allow pharmacists to be recognized and paid as providers of patient care services.

(JAPhA NS51(4) 482;July/August 2011)(JAPhA 56(4); 379 July/August 2016)

Medicare and Patient Care Service
2012,
2005,
1969

1. APhA believes that Health care, including the essential component of patient care services, should be made available to as many people as possible in our society through the most economical system compatible with an acceptable standard of quality.

2. APhA should support the Part B mechanism which is the voluntary supplementary medical insurance program financed equally by beneficiaries and the government.

3. APhA should oppose legislation which would restrict the Medicare drug benefit to specific, chronic diseases.

4. APhA should support the inclusion of patient care services under Medicare or any other federal financing mechanism, providing the program is designed to help persons who need it most and is administratively efficient and economical.

(JAPhA NS9:363 July 1969) (JAPhA NS45(5):558 September/October 2005) (Reviewed 2009) (JAPhA NS52(4) 460 July/August 2012)(Reviewed 2017)

Pharmacist's Role in Health Care Reform
2011

1. APhA affirms that pharmacists are the medication experts whose accessibility uniquely positions them to increase access to and improve quality of health care while decreasing overall costs.

2. APhA asserts that pharmacists must be recognized as the essential and accountable patient care provider on the health care team responsible for optimizing outcomes through medication therapy management (MTM).

3. APhA asserts the following: (a) Medication Therapy Management Services: Definition and Program Criteria is the standard definition of MTM that must be recognized by all stakeholders. (b) Medication Therapy Management in Pharmacy Practice: Core Elements of an MTM Service Model, as adopted by the profession of pharmacy, shall serve as the foundational MTM service model.

4. APhA asserts that pharmacists must be included as essential patient care provider and compensated as such in every health care model, including but not limited to, the medical home and accountable care organizations.

5. APhA actively promotes the outcomes-based studies, pilot programs, demonstration projects, and other activities that document and reconfirm pharmacists' impact on patient health and well-being, process of care delivery, and overall health care costs.

(JAPhA NS51(4) 482;July/August 2011)(Reviewed 2016)

Government-Financed Reimbursement
2005,
1977

1. APhA supports only those government-operated or -financed, third-party prescription programs which ensures that participating pharmacists receive individualized, equitable compensation for professional services and reimbursement for products provided under the program.

2. APhA regards equitable compensation under any government-operated or -financed, third party prescription programs as requiring payments equivalent to a participating pharmacist's prevailing charges to the self-paying public for comparable services and products, plus additional, documented, direct and indirect costs which are generated by participation in the program.

3. APhA supports those government-operated or -financed, third-party prescription programs which base compensation for professional services on professional fees and reimbursement for products provided on actual cost, with the provision of a specific exception to this policy in those instances when equity in professional compensation cannot otherwise be attained.

(JAPhA NS17:452 July 1977) (JAPhA NS45(5):558 September/October 2005) (Reviwed 2009(Reviewed 2011)(Reviewed 2012)(Reviewed 2017)

Inclusion of Pharmacist-Provided Patient Care Services in Health Programs
2005,
1980

APhA supports the inclusion of pharmacist-provided patient care services in health care programs that are developed and/or funded by governments and private agencies and organizations.

(Am Pharm NS20(7):69 July 1980) (JAPhA NS45(5):558 September/October 2005)(Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2010)(Reviewed 2011)(Reviewed 2012)(Reviewed 2017)

Medicare, Medicaid, and Other Third-Party Payment Programs
2005,
1970

1. APhA advocates a professional fee system of reimbursement in Medicare and Medicaid and other third-party payment programs which would recognize variations in services provided and costs incurred by individual pharmacies.

2. APhA supports maintaining close liaison with proponents of national health insurance programs to ensure that pharmacy will have an opportunity to make its views known in the development of such proposals.

(JAPhA NS10:346 June 1970) (JAPhA NS45(5):558 September/October 2005)(Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2010)(Reviewed 2012)(Reviewed 2014)

Medicare: Reimbursement Procedures
2005,
1969

APhA should educate pharmacists on aspects of reimbursement procedures and concepts associated with Medicare.

(JAPhA NS8:368 July 1968) (JAPhA NS45(5):558 September/October 2005) (Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2012)(Reviewed 2014)

Tablet Splitting
2004

APhA opposes mandatory tablet splitting.

(JAPhA NS44(5):551 September/October 2004) (Reviewed 2010)

Medicare Task Force: Policy Guidelines
1969

1. The following guidelines supplement those adopted by APhA in 1967

(a) Provide for beneficiary contribution toward program financing.

(b) Provide for government reimbursement of claims directly to the pharmacist.

(c) Compensate pharmacists by means of a professional fee commensurate with the level of professional service performed in addition to making reimbursement for the cost of the drugs.

(d) Establish a per-prescription, fixed amount (co-payment) which must be paid by the beneficiary when obtaining drugs.

(e) To assure patients of receiving safe and effective drugs, establish a list of reimbursable amounts for each drug based on a nationally available product of acceptable quality and cost.

(f) Include all drugs having therapeutic use, whether for chronic or acute conditions.

(g) Include all persons eligible for Part B Medicare coverage.

(JAPhA NS9: 343 July 1969) (Reviewed 2005) (Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2014)

Drugs Provided Under Social Security Act: Guidelines for Pharmaceutical Service
1967

1. Since it is probable or likely that APhA may have to consider and act upon some proposals in the area of drug costs before the next annual meeting, we recommend that APhA Board of Trustees be guided by whether the proposals:

(a) Permit pharmacists to select and dispense a quality drug product;

(b) Establish some mechanism to assist pharmacists in selecting quality, drug products under the cost and other criteria established;

(c) Permit the use of any available drug product when unique medical circumstances so require;

(d) Establish a reasonable remuneration base for pharmacists rendering services under the program;

(e) Guarantee recipients free choice of pharmacy; and

(f) Limit the reimbursement for pharmacists' services to those provided by duly licensed pharmacists.

(JAPhA NS7:315 June 1967) (Reviewed 2005) (Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2014)

National Health Insurance
National Health Insurance (NHI)
2005,
1971

1. APhA endorses the concept of national health insurance as one means by which the costs of health care may be controlled and rational order brought to the health care system:

(a) A national health insurance plan must recognize that high quality health care is a right of every citizen regardless of his economic or social status. (b) A national health insurance plan must, as a point of departure, provide a health care delivery system which will correct the inadequacies in the delivery of health care. (c) A national health insurance plan must allow for maximum utilization of pharmacists in health care roles. (d) Group practices established under national health insurance must permit pharmacists participation on an equitable basis and not merely as employees of physician-controlled groups. (e) A national health insurance plan should, to the extent feasible, utilize existing community pharmacies as health care facilities.

(JAPhA NS11:265 May 1971) (JAPhA NS45(5):558 September/October 2005)(Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2014)

National Health Insurance: Pharmaceutical Service Benefit
1977

1. A National Health Insurance pharmaceutical service benefit must include acceptable methods for ensuring equitable reimbursement to pharmacists for products and services which are to be provided under the program.

2. Reimbursement to pharmacists for dispensed medication and devices under a NHI plan should be based on professional fees for professional services, plus reimbursement for the actual cost of any drug product or device provided.

3. A NHI, pharmaceutical service benefit must optimize administrative efficiency and minimize administrative costs.

(JAPhA NS17:451 July 1977) (Reviewed 2005) (Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2014)

New Payment Systems
APhA's Role in the Development and Support of New Payment Systems
2011,
1994

1. APhA should continue its work with pharmacy benefits' managers and other private and public payers to develop innovative pharmacy benefit designs and compensation strategies for pharmacists' services.

2. APhA will endorse benefit design concepts that recognize and compensate pharmacists for their cognitive services to maximize therapeutic outcomes.

(Am Pharm NS34(6):58 June 1994) (Reviewed 2005)(Reviewed 2009) (Reviewed 2010((JAPhA NS51(4) 484;July/August 2011)(Reviewed 2016)

Payment System Reform
2005,
1993

1. APhA must advocate reform of pharmacy payment systems to enhance the delivery of comprehensive medication-use management services.

2. APhA must assume a leadership role, in cooperation with other pharmacy organizations, patients, other providers of health services, and third-party payers, in developing a payment system reform plan.

3. APhA should encourage universal acceptance of all components of pharmaceutical care and their integration into pharmacy practice to support payment for services.

(Am Pharm NS33(7):53 July 1993) (Reviewed 2005) (Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2011)(Reviewed 2016)

Integrated Risk/Capitation Payment Systems
1995

1. APhA should provide pharmacists with tools to evaluate compensation for their pharmaceutical care services through mechanisms based on concepts other than fee-for-service.

2. APhA must facilitate both economic and clinical research on cost-to-outcomes benefits of pharmaceutical care services under integrated risk/capitated health care systems.

3. APhA affirms the principle that any pharmacist or pharmacy that adheres to a programs quality standards and agrees to accept its compensation plan shall be able to participate in an integrated risk/capitated system or network.

(Am Pharm NS35(6):37 June 1995) (Reviewed 2005) (Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2014)

Product and Payment Systems
1994

1. APhA shall work with public and private sectors in developing timely educational processes which assist pharmacists to implement patient care, understand new payment systems, and apply emerging therapeutic advances to achieve desired patient outcomes.

2. APhA supports payment systems that distinguish between compensation for the provision of pharmaceutical care and reimbursement for product distribution.

3. APhA shall participate in the identification, development, and implementation of models for procurement and handling of therapeutic and diagnostic pharmaceutical products and devices which assure the continuous provision of pharmaceutical care by pharmacists.

(Am Pharm NS34(6):56 June 1994) (Reviewed 2005) (Reviewed 2009) (Reviewed 2010)

Professional Fees
Billing and Documentation of Medication Therapy Management (MTM) Services
2008

1. APhA encourages the development and use of a system for billing of MTM services that: (a) includes a standardized data set for transmission of billing claims; (b) utilizes a standardized process that is consistent with claim billing by other healthcare providers; (c) utilizes a billing platform that is accepted by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) and is compliant with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)

2. APhA supports the pharmacist's or pharmacy's choice of a documentation system that allows for transmission of any MTM billing claim and interfaces with the billing platform used by the insurer or payer.

3. APhA encourages pharmacists to use the American Medical Association (AMA) Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes for billing of MTM services.

4. APhA supports efforts to further develop CPT codes for billing of pharmacists' services, through the work of the Pharmacist Services Technical Advisory Coalition (PSTAC).

(JAPhA NS48(4):471 July/August 2008) (Reviewed 2010) (Reviewed 2015)(Reviewed 2016)

Periodic Adjustments of Professional Fees in Federal Programs
2005,
1975

It is essential that federal regulations governing pharmacist professional fees in federally-supported, health care programs require review and equitable adjustments on a regularized, periodic basis.

(JAPhA NS15:330 June 1975) (Reviewed 2005) (Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2014)

Compensation for Cognitive Services
1987

1. APhA recognizes that pharmacists provide to patients cognitive services (i.e., services requiring professional judgment) that may or may not be related to the dispensing or sale of a product.

2. APhA supports compensation of pharmacists for providing cognitive services (i.e., services requiring professional judgment) that may or may not be related to the dispensing or sale of a product.

(Am Pharm NS27(6):422 June 1987)(Reviewed 2005) (Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2011)(Reviewed 2013)

Third Party and Prepaid Programs
Exemption from the Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA)
2005,
1984

APhA seeks introduction of legislation exempting state, third-party, and prescription program legislation from preemption by ERISA.

(Am Pharm NS24(7):61 July 1984) (Reviewed 2005) (Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2014)

Third-party Reimbursement Legislation
2005,
1981

APhA supports enactment of legislation requiring that third-party program reimbursement to pharmacists be at least equal to the pharmacists prevailing charges to the self-paying public for comparable services and products, plus additional documented direct and indirect costs, which are generated by participating in the program.

(Am Pharm NS21(5):40 May 1981) (Reviewed 2005) (Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2014)

The Scientific Implications of Health Care Reform
1994

1. APhA advocates that the public and private sectors maintain or increase their level of commitment to assure adequate resources for both basic and applied research within a reformed health care system.

2. APhA encourages the public and private research communities to preferentially expend resources for the discovery and development of new drugs and technologies that provide substantive, innovative therapeutic advances.

3. APhA advocates an increased emphasis on outcomes research in all areas of health services, including drug and disease-specific research encompassing clinical, economic, and humanistic dimensions (e.g., quality of life, patient satisfaction, ethics) and advocates for action related to conclusions for such research.

4. APhA encourages interdisciplinary collaboration in research efforts within and between the public and private research communities.

(Am Pharm NS34(6):55 June 1994)(Reviewed 2004)(Reviewed 2005)(Reviewed 2010)(Reviewed 2011)(Reviewed 2016)

Research
Role of the Pharmacist in the Care of Patients Using Cannabis
2015

1. APhA supports regulatory changes to further facilitate clinical research related to the clinical efficacy and safety associated with the use of cannabis and its various components.

2. APhA encourages health care provider education related to the clinical efficacy, safety, and management of patients using cannabis and its various components.

3. APhA advocates that the pharmacist collect and document information in the pharmacy patient profile about patient use of cannabis and its various components and provide appropriate patient counseling.

4. APhA supports pharmacist participation in furnishing cannabis and its various components when scientific data support the legitimate medical use of the products and delivery mechanisms, and federal, state, or territory laws or regulations permit pharmacists to furnish them.

5. APhA opposes pharmacist involvement in furnishing cannabis and its various components for recreational use.

(JAPhA N55(4): 365 July/August 2015)

Pharmacy Practice-based Research Networks
2013,
2008

1. APhA supports establishment of pharmacy practice-based research networks (PBRNs) to strengthen the evidence base in support of pharmacists' patient care services.

2. APhA encourages collaborations among stakeholders to determine the minimal infrastructure and resources needed to develop and implement local, regional, and nationwide networks for performing pharmacy practice-based research.

3. APhA encourages pharmacy residency programs to actively participate in pharmacy PBRNs (practice-based research networks).

(JAPhA NS48(4):471 July/August 2008) (JAPhA 53(4) 366 July/August 2013)

Pharmacist's Role in Health Care Reform
2011

1. APhA affirms that pharmacists are the medication experts whose accessibility uniquely positions them to increase access to and improve quality of health care while decreasing overall costs.

2. APhA asserts that pharmacists must be recognized as the essential and accountable patient care provider on the health care team responsible for optimizing outcomes through medication therapy management (MTM).

3. APhA asserts the following: (a) Medication Therapy Management Services: Definition and Program Criteria is the standard definition of MTM that must be recognized by all stakeholders. (b) Medication Therapy Management in Pharmacy Practice: Core Elements of an MTM Service Model, as adopted by the profession of pharmacy, shall serve as the foundational MTM service model.

4. APhA asserts that pharmacists must be included as essential patient care provider and compensated as such in every health care model, including but not limited to, the medical home and accountable care organizations.

5. APhA actively promotes the outcomes-based studies, pilot programs, demonstration projects, and other activities that document and reconfirm pharmacists' impact on patient health and well-being, process of care delivery, and overall health care costs.

(JAPhA NS51(4) 482;July/August 2011)(Reviewed 2016)

Public Access to Clinical Trials Data
2005

APhA supports access by healthcare professionals and the public to all clinical trial data derived from scientifically valid studies. APhA supports the establishment of a single, independent, publicly accessible clinical trials database that includes but is not limited to the following components: (a) includes all studies, pre and post drug approval, throughout the research period (whether completed, in-progress or discontinued) (b) clearly states the size, demographics, limitations and citations, if published, of each study listed (c) includes an interpretative statement by an independent review body regarding the purpose of the study, methodology and outcomes to assist the public in understanding the posted information in a timely manner (d) includes warnings to the public regarding inappropriate or incomplete use of the data in making clinical decisions in absence of an interpretive statement (e) the sponsor and any supporting company, organization, or partnered institution of each clinical trial listed shall be clearly identified. (This includes Clinical Research Organizations, Academic Research Organizations, Site Management Organizations or any other group that is responsible other than the investigator's research site.)

(JAPhA NS45(5):554-555 September/October 2005) (Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2014)

Use of Animals in Drug Research
2005,
1986,
1981

1. APhA recognizes that animal experiments continue to be an essential, and indeed irreplaceable, component of biomedical research and testing.

2. When animals must be used for biomedical research and testing, APhA strongly supports humane treatment and adequate regulation, controls, and enforcement of appropriate measures relating to animal procurement, transportation, housing, care, and treatment.

3. APhA encourages the further development of methods of biomedical research and testing which do not require the use of animals.

4. APhA opposes legislative provisions that would penalize the properly controlled and conducted use of animals for biomedical research and testing.

(Am Pharm NS21(5):41 May 1981) (Am Pharm NS26(6):420 June 1986) (JAPhA NS45(5):559 September/October 2005) (Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2014)

Use of Representative Populations in Clinical Studies
2005,
1990

1. APhA supports the use of representative populations in clinical studies, including the use of women, minorities, the elderly, and children when appropriate.

2. APhA encourages the development of research techniques which would identify possible problems not readily detected in adult clinical investigations to aid in the safe and effective evaluation of drugs in children.

(Am Pharm NS30(6):46 June 1990) (JAPhA NS45(5): 559 September/October 2005) (Reviewed 2009(Reviewed 2014)

Federal Funding to Evaluate the Impact of Health Care Policies
1990

1. APhA supports the study of economic, scientific, and social issues related to health care, particularly pharmaceutical services.

2. APhA urges the federal government to establish funding mechanisms for objective research to assess the impact of public policy on the health care system, particularly pharmaceutical services.

3. APhA urges that all federally-funded research addressing public policy pertaining to pharmaceutical services incorporate input from organized pharmacy.

(Am Pharm NS30(6):46 June 1990) (Reviewed 2005) (Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2014)

Pharmacists as Principal Investigators in Clinical Drug Research
1989

1. APhA urges the sponsors of drug research to permit pharmacists to serve as principal investigators.

2. APhA encourages state and federal agencies to eliminate regulatory and policy obstacles that prohibit pharmacists from being investigators, including principal investigators, in drug research or sponsors of Investigational New Drug Applications, Investigational Device Evaluations, and Animal Investigational New Drug Applications.

(Am Pharm NS29(7):465 July 1989) (Reviewed 2005) (Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2014)

Scientist Manpower
1989

1. APhA supports efforts to increase the number of pharmacists pursuing graduate education and research in the pharmaceutical sciences, including, but not limited to

(a) Dissemination of information to create awareness about graduate programs and career opportunities.

(b) Pursuit of increased government, industry, and foundation funding.

(c) Encouragement of innovative recruitment programs and curricula to facilitate career development.

(Am Pharm NS29(7):463 July 1989) (Reviewed 2005) (Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2014)

Impact of National Institutes of Health (NIH) Budget on Future Research
1987

APhA recognizes the fundamental role of biomedical research in the profession of pharmacy and actively supports continued and predictable funding of NIH research.

(Am Pharm NS27(6):424 June 1987) (Reviewed 2005) (Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2014)

Positive Controls Versus Placebo Controls in Testing New Drugs
1986

APhA recognizes the importance of and the need for placebo-controlled trials in testing new drugs. In addition, APhA supports the use of alternative study designs (such as positive controls), as well as innovative methodologies where they appear to be appropriate and useful.

(Am Pharm NS26(6):420 June 1986) (Reviewed 2005) (Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2014)

Freedom of Scientific Information
1984

1. APhA supports the principle of the free dissemination and exchange of scientific information with only the following exceptions:

(a) prior mutual confidentiality agreement between sponsor and researcher, (b) material that is essential to national security, and (c) legitimate trade secrets and/or proprietary information.

(Am Pharm NS24(7):61 July 1984) (Reviewed 2005) (Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2014)

Modification of Patent Periods
1981

APhA supports modifications of patent periods for prescription drugs and drug products that would create reasonable incentives for needed research on new drugs and drug products.

(Am Pharm NS21(5):41 May 1981) (Reviewed 2005) (Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2014)

APhA Study Proposal
1966

APhA should expand its research programs and plans to help the profession find solutions to its problems, discover new opportunities for service, and improve its present practices.

(JAPhA NS6:293 June 1966) (Reviewed 2005)(Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2014)

Biologic, Biosimilar, and Interchangeable Biologic Drug Products
2016

1. APhA urges the development of programs and policies that facilitate patient access to and affordability of biologic products.

2. APhA urges the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to expedite the development of standards and pathways that will evaluate the interchangeability of biologic products.

3. APhA recognizes the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Purple Book as an authoritative reference about biologic product interchangeability within the United States.

4. APhA opposes interchangeable biologic product substitution processes that require authorization, recordkeeping, or reporting beyond generic product substitution processes.

5. APhA encourages scientific justification for extrapolation of indications for biologic products to ensure patient safety and optimal therapeutic outcomes.

(JAPhA 56(4); 369 July/August 2016)

Investigational New Drugs
Investigational New Drug (IND) Studies
1981

APhA encourages investigators and sponsors who are conducting IND studies to utilize the professional services of pharmacists in carrying out such studies.

(Am Pharm NS2(5):40 July 1981) (Reviewed 2004) (Reviewed 2009) (Reviewed 2010) (Reviewed 2015)

Sampling
Traditional Sampling and Pharmacy-based, Starter Dose Programs
2002,
1993

1. APhA encourages the use of pharmacy-based, starter dose programs.

2. APhA recommends that pharmacy-based, starter dose programs should promote patient access, be cost effective, ensure product integrity, maximize patient outcomes and provide appropriate compensation to the pharmacist.

3. APhA recommends that patients and prescribers communicate with pharmacists regarding the use of traditional drug samples to promote safe and effective medication use.

4. APhA encourages that sampling and starter dose programs limit the quantity of medications involved to amounts sufficient for beginning doses only.

(Am Pharm NS33(7):55 July 1993) (JAPhA NS42(5):Suppl. 1:S60 September/October 2002)(Reviewed 2007)(Reviewed 2012)(Reviewed 2017)

Specialties In Pharmacy
Recognition of Pharmacy Practice Specialties
2012,
1989

1. APhA endorses the Board of Pharmacy Specialties' process for recognizing specialties and certifying pharmacists in pharmacy practice specialties.

2. APhA believes that because of the existence of the Board of Pharmacy Specialties' process, separate governmental recognition of pharmacy specialties and pharmacists in pharmacy practice specialties is not necessary.

(Am Pharm NS29(7):464 July 1989) (Reviewed 2001) (Reviewed 2007) (JAPhA NS52(4) 460 July/August 2012)(Reviewed 2017)

Nuclear Pharmacy Regulations
1980

1. APhA supports the concept of state boards of pharmacy retaining their authority to regulate all aspects of professional pharmacy practice including nuclear pharmacy practice.

2. APhA urges state boards of pharmacy to promptly adopt appropriate rules and regulations for the practice of nuclear pharmacy, using the NABP Model Regulations for the Licensure of Nuclear Pharmacies as a model.

(Am Pharm NS20:69 July 1980) (Reviewed 2006)(Reviewed 2011)(Reviewed 2016)

Titles/designations
Community Pharmacy
Use of the Phrase "Community Pharmacy"
2000

APhA supports use of the phrase "community pharmacy" rather than "retail pharmacy."

(JAPhA NS40(5):Suppl. 1:S8 September/October 2000) (Reviewed 2002) (Reviewed 2007)(Reviewed 2012)(Reviewed 2017)

Non-Pharmacists
Use of Titles
1999

APhA opposes the use of titles such as "Pharmaceutical Specialist" and "Pharmaceutical Consultant" by sales representatives of pharmaceutical manufacturers.

(JAPhA 39(4):447 July/August 1999)(Reviewed 2006) (Reviewed 2007)(Reviewed 2012)(Reviewed 2017)

Pharmacist
"P.D." (Pharmacy Doctor) Designation for Pharmacists
1981

APhA opposes the term "P.D." (Pharmacy Doctor) as the uniform designation for pharmacists.

(Am Pharm NS21(5):40 May 1981) (Reviewed 2002) (Reviewed 2007)(Reviewed 2012)(Reviewed 2017)

Uniform Designation for Pharmacists
1977

1. The profession of pharmacy should establish and use a uniform designation to identify an individual as a pharmacist.

2. The profession should adopt and use the designation "Pharmacist" following an individual's name as the uniform designation identifying that individual as a pharmacist.

3. At the discretion of individual pharmacists, earned academic degrees or state licensure designation may be indicated following the uniform designation.

(JAPhA NS17:454 July 1977) (Reviewed 2002) (Reviewed 2007)(Reviewed 2012)(Reviewed 2017)

Student Pharmacist
Regulation of Student Pharmacists' Practice Experience
2005

1. APhA encourages state boards of pharmacy to use the title "student pharmacist" to identify all students enrolled in their professional years of pharmacy education in an Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE) accredited program.

2. APhA encourages state boards of pharmacy to permit a student pharmacist to perform the duties of a pharmacist within the applicable state's scope of practice under a pharmacist's supervision. Preceptors shall consider the experience and education of student pharmacists when providing pharmacy practice opportunities.

(JAPhA NS45(5):554 September/October 2005)(Reviewed 2006)(Reviewed 2008)(Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2013)

Vaccines
Requiring Influenza Vaccination for All Pharmacy Personnel
2011

APhA supports an annual influenza vaccination as a condition of employment, training, or volunteering within an organization that provides pharmacy services or operates a pharmacy or pharmacy department (unless a valid medical or religious reason precludes vaccination).

(JAPhA NS51(4) 482;July/August 2011)(Reviewed 2012)(Reviewed 2017)

Pharmacy Personnel Immunization Rates
2007

1. APhA supports efforts to increase immunization rates of healthcare professionals, for the purposes of protecting patients, and urges all pharmacy personnel to receive all immunizations recommended by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) for healthcare workers.

2. APhA encourages employers to provide necessary immunizations to all pharmacy personnel.

1. APhA supports efforts to increase immunization rates of healthcare professionals, for the purposes of protecting patients, and urges all pharmacy personnel to receive all immunizations recommended by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) for healthcare workers.

2. APhA encourages employers to provide necessary immunizations to all pharmacy personnel.

3. APhA encourages federal, state, and local public health officials to recognize pharmacists as first responders (like physicians, nurses, police, etc.) and prioritize pharmacists to receive medications and immunizations.

(JAPhA NS45(5):580 September/October 2007) (Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2014)

Pharmacists' Role in Immunizations
2005,
2003,
1996

1. APhA encourages pharmacists to take an active role in achieving the goals of the Healthy People program regarding immunizations through: (a) advocacy, (b) contracting with other health care professionals, or (c) pharmacists administering vaccines to vulnerable patients.

2. APhA encourages the availability of all vaccines to all pharmacies in order to meet public health needs.

3. APhA supports the compensation of pharmacists for the administration of immunizations and the reimbursement for vaccine distribution.

4. APhA should facilitate the development of programs that educate pharmacists about their role in immunizations in public health.

(JAPhA NS36(6):395 June 1996) (JAPhA NS43(5):Suppl. 1:S57 September/October 2003) (JAPhA NS45(5):556 September/October 2005)(Reviewed 2007)(Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2012)(Reviewed 2014)

Standards for Pharmacy-based Immunization Advocacy
1997

(Note: Guidelines approved by the APhA Board of Trustees in May, 1997; noted in Appendix.) APhA should adopt and disseminate standards for immunization advocacy and delivery by pharmacists.

(JAPhA NS37(4):460 July/August 1997) (Reviewed 2005) (Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2012)(Reviewed 2014)

Encouraging Availability and Use of Vaccines
1987

1. APhA encourages the continued availability of vaccines to meet public health needs.

2. APhA supports the development of programs that educate the public about the role of immunizations in public health.

3. APhA supports the reimbursement by public and private third-party payers for immunizations.

(Am Pharm NS27(6):424 June 1987) (Reviewed 2005)(Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2012)(Reviewed 2014)

Vitamins, Minerals, Nutritional Supplements And Food
Complementary and Alternative Medications
2005,
1997

1. APhA supports pharmacists using professional judgment to make informed decisions regarding the appropriateness of use or the sale of complementary and alternative medicines.

2. APhA shall assist pharmacists and student pharmacists in becoming knowledgeable about complementary and alternative medications to facilitate the counseling of patients regarding effectiveness, proper use, indications, safety and possible interactions.

(JAPhA NS37(4):July/August 1997) (Reviewed 2002) (JAPhA NS45(5):556-557 September/October 2005) (Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2014)

Homeopathy
2002

1. APhA supports the demonstration of safety and efficacy of homeopathic products from adequate, well-designed scientific studies before pharmacists advocate or sell homeopathic products.

2. APhA recognizes patient autonomy regarding the use of homeopathic products. Pharmacists should educate patients who choose to use homeopathic products.

3. APhA supports the modification of the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act to require that homeopathic manufacturers provide evidence of efficacy and safety for all products, including products currently in the marketplace.

(JAPhA NS42(5):Suppl. 1:S60 September/October 2002) (Reviewed 2005) (Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2014)

"Quack" Therapy
2002,
1986

APhA encourages efforts that would require the listing of all active ingredients of a food promoted as a drug or drug product in written promotional and advertising material.

(Am Pharm NS26(6):420 June 1986) (JAPhA NS42(5):Suppl. 1:S62 September/October 2002) (Reviewed 2005) (Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2014)

Regulation of Dietary Supplements
2000

1. APhA shall work with Congress to modify the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act or enact other legislation to require that dietary supplement manufacturers provide evidence of efficacy and safety for all products, including products currently in the marketplace.

2. APhA supports the establishment and implementation of clear and effective enforcement policies to remove promptly unsafe or ineffective dietary supplement products from the marketplace.

3. APhA shall work with the FDA to improve dietary supplement product labeling to ensure full disclosure of all product components and their source with associated strengths and recommendations for use in specific patient populations.

4. APhA supports the development and enforcement of dietary supplement good manufacturing practices (GMPs) and compliance with USP/NF standards to assure quality, safe, contaminant-free products.

5. APhA encourages health care professionals, manufacturers, and consumers to report adverse health events associated with dietary supplements. APhA encourages the FDA to create a database with this information and make it available to all interested parties.

(JAPhA NS1(9):40 September/October 2000)(Reviewed 2005)(Reviewed 2007)(Reviewed 2012)(Reviewed 2017)

Vitamins, Minerals, and Other Nutritional Supplement Usage
1988

1. APhA advocates programs which address the public health implications of the misuse and/or abuse of vitamins, minerals, and other nutritional supplements.

2. APhA encourages pharmacists to provide health education regarding unsubstantiated and/or misleading health claims as they apply to vitamins, minerals, and other nutritional supplements.

(Am Pharm NS28 (6):395 June 1988) (Reviewed 2002) (Reviewed 2005) (Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2014)

Federal Regulation of Salt in Processed Foods
1981

APhA encourages manufacturers of processed foods to voluntarily reduce the salt (sodium chloride) added to their products and to use the minimum amount of salt necessary in the manufacturing process.

(Am Pharm NS21(5):41 May 1981) (Reviewed 2005) (Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2014)

Food Labeling
1980

APhA supports requirements for disclosure in the labeling of processed food and the identity and, whenever appropriate, the quantity of ingredients, such as those preservatives, artificial colors and flavors, salts, sugars, and other substances that represent a potential risk to the health or therapy of a portion of the general population.

(Am Pharm NS20(7):73 July 1980) (Reviewed 2005) (Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2014)

Women In Pharmacy
Consideration of the Equal Rights Amendment
1979

APhA supports efforts to assure equal rights of all persons.

(AmPharm NS19(7):60 June 1979) (Reviewed 2009)(Reviewed 2014)