The president's Council of Economic Advisers estimates the opioid epidemic put a $504 billion drain on the country in 2015—a rapid escalation from $78.5 billion in costs cited in a private White House analysis just 2 years earlier. The more than six-fold increase in part reflects efforts to better capture lost opportunities resulting from opioid-related deaths, especially among the working-age population. These deaths account for nearly $432 billion on their own, with continued opioid abuse inflating health care costs by $29 billion and law enforcement activity contributing about $21 billion more. For now, report authors offered no potential solutions to the problem. "A better understanding of the economic causes contributing to the crisis is crucial for evaluating the success of various interventions to combat it," they wrote.