Final results from the Phase III KEYNOTE-006 clinical trial uphold interim analyses that demonstrated pembrolizumab as a superior treatment for advanced melanoma compared with ipilimumab. With patient participation in 16 countries, study recruitment and randomization took place September 18, 2013–March 3, 2014. Ultimately, 278 patients were assigned to take I.V. ipilimumab every 3 weeks, for a total of four doses. Cohorts of 279 and 277 patients, meanwhile, were assigned to treatment with I.V. pembrolizumab every 2 weeks or 3 weeks, respectively. At followup a mean 22.9 months later, 383 patients had died. The 2-year overall survival rate was 43% for the ipilimumab group, compared with 55% in the two pembrolizumab groups. The findings add to evidence supporting the use of pembrolizumab as a standard of care in adult patients with advanced melanoma.