Cambridge University investigators conducted an evidence-based literature review in order to provide general practitioners with information on long-term adverse effects of chemotherapy in teenagers and young adults (TYAs). They searched PubMed and the Cochrane databases between 1990 and 2016 for related observational studies, randomized trials, meta analyses, and systematic reviews in the target population: cancer patients aged 15–24 years old. The findings from those research projects confirmed that TYA patients who undergo chemotherapy can survive for many decades but face any number of late effects that can compromise their quality of life—including, but not limited to cardiovascular disease; loss of fertility; neurocognitive, psychological, social, and/or psychosocial effects; fatigue; and development of new cancers. According to the review, many of these effects tend to differ from those observed in adults or in younger children. Considering the complexity and broad range of potential long-term adverse effects associated with chemotherapy in TYAs, more and more providers are proactively developing personalized care plans for these patients. In the United Kingdom, for example, the National Cancer Survivorship Initiative recommends a standardized holistic needs evaluation that factors in medical, psychological, and financial assessments; and an initial cancer care review performed at the patient's general practice 3–6 months following their diagnosis. Similar programs have been adopted around the world, all with the goal of helping TYA cancer survivors enjoy a healthy and productive life.